Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*       Racial taxonomy

*       Ethnic taxonomy

*       Europids

*       Nordids

*       Indids

*       Littoralids

*        Caucasoids

*        Elamitoids

*        Negrids

*       Melanids

*       Tungids

*       Pelasgids

*       Cimbroids

*       Turanids 

*       Ugro-Scythids

*       Uralo-Sarmatids

*       Lappids

*       Sinids



*        Religious taxonomy

*     Passionalism     

*     Manism        

*       Chthonism

*       Phytotheism

*       Daphnephorism

*       Piscimorphism

*       Heliotheism/Oculotheism

*       Nanotheism



*        Motif  taxonomy

*       Eleotheism

*       Polytheism

*        Bovine cults

*        Naturism

*        Hydrotheism

*        Petrotheism

*         Astrotheism/Ovotheism

*        Determinism



The Religious Cults of Ancient Farmers (Europids, Caucasoids, Elamitoids, Negrids, Melanids, Amazonids)


Agrarian Cults of Prehistoric herbivorous Plant-Gatherers and Vegeral Farmers

Phytototemism: belief in totem ancestors as reincarnations of plants, flowers, shrubs or trees

Polytheism: cults of many celestial and subterranean deities

Chthonism: cults of Mother Earth and underworld deities (from Greek χθών (khthṓngroundsoil)

Elementalism: belief in four primordial elements: air, earth, water and fire

Naturism: belief in natural elements of the nature (from Latin natura nature)

Hylozoism: belief in the spiritual nature of matter (from Greek hylos matter)

Phytomorphism: belief in postmortal transformations into plants, shrubs and trees 

Manism: cults of ancestral spirits of dead fathers (Latin manes spirit of the ancestors)

Bovinism: cults of bovine deities (bulls, cows, calves)

Passionalism: worshiping martyr gods of corn, death, sacrifice and suffering  

Eleotheism: worshiping female goddesses of love and mercy (from Greek έλεος, éleos mercy)

Endophagism: the rite of endophagia, eating the dead body of fathers and ancestors

Map 1. The evolutionary tree of religiogenesis and magic cults

(from P. Bělíček:: The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, Table 8, Map p. 24)


Chthonic and Hylozoic Naturism: Agricultural Polytheism


    The oral tradition of Neolithic peasants can be tracked back far into remote prehistory and old myths of naturist religions. All agricultural cults coincide in worshipping Mother Earth, Father Heaven and their divine children symbolised by the sun, the moon, thunder or water. Their divine family was divided into several generations of natural phenomena with the philosophy of sexual dualism and labels of sex gender expressing their cult of fertility. This naturist religion permeated the polytheist faith of most peasants’ tribes all over the world and guided also the first steps of ancient philosophical thought. Ancient Greek, Indian and Chinese philosophy derived the origins of existence from four primordial elements, earth, air, water and fire. Their interest in elements was not due to chemical alchemy but to primitive agronomy focusing upon the agents of water, soil, light, heat and fertility. These agents were animated as divine deities that control the weather and regulate the supply of nutrient substances needed for rich harvests.

    The central figure of chthonic cults (Greek χθών, khthōn ‘earth’) was Mother Earth, her daughter goddess of love together with her lover adored as the god of vegetation (Egyptian Osiris, Sumerian Dumuzi, Babylonian Tammuz). This god was celebrated as a martyr deity who departs as an old man to the underworld every autumn and the next spring he is resurrected with the budding spring vegetation as a little child. In Egypt Isis represented the goddess of love and her lover Osiris symbolised corn, crop and fertility. In Mesopotamia their roles were entrusted to divine lovers Ishtar and Tammuz. In Christian iconology they were depicted as the Holy Virgin hugging Jesus as a little baby and Three Ladies bewailing his dying body crucified on the Holy Cross. Such iconographic stylisation probably comes from Africa where peasants carved wooden statuettes representing a mother cuddling with a small baby on her lap. All these myths deified the elementary labours of sowing and reaping corn by myths of human nativity and resurrection.

    The agricultural folklore gave a vivid description of early farmers’ matriarchal communities living in quadrangular longhouses and villages with male and female moieties. The all-pervading principle of sexual dualism was visible also in the declensions of Indo-European languages labelling all live and inanimate things by the opposition of masculine or feminine gender. Their original shape is still preserved in Negro-Australian classifiers dividing all entities into humans, animals, trees and plants. Sex categories were subordinated to age classification and ancestral cults worshipping old grandmothers and dead ancestors as divine deities. In China Confucius reformed the vernacular tradition of ancestral cults into rites of filial piety.1 In Melanesia and Latin America this cult presupposed eating the dead grandfather’s or grandmother’s body and hoarding their skulls under the pillow or head-bench. The Tupí-Guaraní farmers in South America desired to inherit their divine powers by eating them in the form of ashes put into a drink or baked in a cake. The Christian eucharistia rehearsed the act of eating the god’s dead body and drinking his blood during the rite of the Holy Communion.

 The unity of agricultural folklore is perceptible also in fairy-tales about kings (gods of heavens) coping with drought, dragon-slayers (gods of sun) and princesses (goddesses of mercy and love) sacrificed to dragon monsters (gods of water) controlling the supply of rains. It included also Australian plant-gathering aborigines whose fairy tales told about girls raped in woods by gods and metamorphosed into trees and flowers. Their atmosphere was reminiscent of Greek myths relating legends about pastimes of Zeus raping nymphs on Olympus. The myths and rites celebrating the martyrdom of cultural heroes suffering from injustice reappeared again in ancient tragedies and medieval mysteries. All religious revivals returned back to processions with saints’ reliquaries and exulted cults of their bones. As Aeschylus’ tragedies were inspired by Eleusinian mysteries, Shakespeare’s, Corneille’s and Schiller’s tragedies were inspired by the Christian eucharistia and passio dei. Also modern fundamentalism develops a sort of ‘victimology’ reviving ideas of medieval martyrology that worshipped suffering saints.




       The feudal regimes of the Middle Ages subdued peasants to merciless bondage and compelled them to accept either Christianity or Moham-medanism. Their outer appearance inherited the mythology of the Hebrew Old Testament in adoring the monotheistic creator Jehovah together with the entourage of his angels, but the medieval peasants filled these legends with their own traditional religious motifs: the cult of wooden idols, statues and icons, worshipping the martyr god Jesus, the polytheist adoration of saints and martyrs and enshrining their relics in reliquaries and sanctuaries. Saints were celebrated in a yearly circle of festivals according to the time-schedule of calendaria ‘calendars’ edited by priests so as to coordinate sowing and harvesting activities with church masses devoted to sacred patrons. Other common rites included marching in processions to chapels and shrines of saints, singing hymns led by priest precentors and praying for drops of rain. The chief item of liturgy consisted in administering the act of Holy Communion with drinking Jesus’s blood incarnated in wine and his flesh incarnated in holy wafers.

    The same process of infiltrating Islam with motifs of agrarian faiths took place in Shi'ite cults. It involved passionate adoration of suffering saints and martyrs with rites similar to Christian flagellant ascetism. Shi'ite men performed dancing processions with ostentatious self-injuring, corporeal self-torture, flogging their back and horrible bleeding while their wailing women watched the parade with cries of merciful compassion. Such rites turned into Persian passion plays called Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye ‘condolence’. Their theological motivations was to pay homage to the tragic fates of Shi'ite martyrs Hassan and Hussein. These rites bore great resemblance to ancient Greek Eleusinian and medieval French mysteries and exhibited an independent Muslim road to genres of stoic tragedy and tragic opera.  

    The common origins of Indo-European and Caucasoid peasants are proved by the predominant occurrence of quantitative (timekeeping) metres in Greek, Latin, Indian and Arabic agrarian hymnology. Medieval folklore represented a two-storey building. The upper social story was occupied by heroic epic about battles of good virtuous and bad fallen angels while the lower ground floor was inhabited by agrarian mysteries revering suffering martyrs. Agrarian pagan cults, however banned, survived tacitly under the official cover of Catholic dogmas preached by the class of feudal lords recruited from aristocratic castes of warriors of eastern descent. Despite bans the Persian, Greek and European agriculturalist heathen faiths stamped their way through the adversity of thraldom and gave vent to their performative genres of miracles, mysteries and tragedies.



Extract from Pavel Bělíček: Systematic Poetics II. Literary Ethnology and Sociology. Prague 2017,  pp. 43-45



1 Kenneth L. Traylor: Chinese Filial Piety. Bloomington: Eastern Press, 1988, p. 110.