Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*     Racial taxonomy

*     Ethnical taxonomy

*     Europids

*     Nordids

*     Indids

*     Littoralids

*     Caucasoids

*     Elamitoids

*     Negrids

*     Melanids

*     Tungids

*     Pelasgids

*     Cimbroids

*     Turanids 

*     Ugro-Scythids

*     Uralo-Sarmatids

*     Lappids

*     Sinids



*     Spain                France

*     Italy       Benelux

*      Britain         Celts

*      Scandinavia  

*     Germany

*     Balts        Slavs

*     Greece

*     Thrace

*     Anatolia



The Anthropology of Uralo-Sarmatids

Clickable terms are red on the yellow background






Map 1. The worldwide distribution of Asiatic Uralo-Sarmatic tribes




Map 2. The Eurasian migrations of Uralo-Sarmatoids

(Pavel Bělíček: The Atlas of Systematic Anthropology I. The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, pp. 87, Map 9)

Uralids and Sibirids: Asiatic Tribes of Hunters and Herdsmen


   Altaic nations separated from other stocks by producing flake-tool industry of two types. Their flakes were manufactured either by the Levalloisian technique of knapping thin chips from a well-prepared core or by the Mousterian technology of retouching bifacial leaf-shaped lance-heads out of flint or quartz. These methods achieved highest perfection as late as in the Upper Palaeolithic, so their identification in earlier Clactonian and Tayacian finds has to consult additional criteria such as the manner of hunting game. These complexes show Proto-Mousterian relationships by inclination to chase big mammals while the Levalloisian stock focused primarily on fish and deer. As far as skeletal anthropology is concerned, their difference made itself felt in gracility. Paradoxically enough, earlier Neanderthals of Levalloisian stamp looked more gracile than later Neanderthals of Mousterian provenience. The former are sometimes classified as Early or Progressive Neanderthals, whereas the latter are valued as Classic or Late Neanderthals.1 This incongruity is explained by their homeland. The Levalloisians came from the Near East while the Mousterians departed from Mongolian steppes and inherited some regressive traits from their ancestor Choukoudian Peking man, who mixed with local varieties of Homo erectus. Their layers have to be arranged into four temporal horizons:


      Neanderthal A → Levalloisians  Homo sapiens aniensis (Sergii 1935),

      Neanderthal B  → Mousterians  Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (King 1864),

      Neanderthal I   → Clactonians: Swanscombe man ← Homo steinheimensis (Berckhemer 1935),

      Neanderthal II  → Tayacians: Fontéchevade man, Ehringsdorf man,

      Neanderthal III → Mousterians: La Chapelle aux Saints, Le Moustier,

      Neanderthal IV → Solutreans: Solutré skeletons.


   The ethnic evolution of Neanderthals lasted more than half a million years and they cannot have perished without meaningful consequences upon recent varieties of mankind. Only few authors doubt close kinship between the Turcoids and Tungids because comparative linguistics takes for granted the inseparable Nostratic unity (cca 47,000 BP) of Indo-European, Altaic, Dravidian and Kartvelian families. They do not realise that Altaic flake-tool cultures were incompatible with European axe-tool makers and their inner differentiation was of much earlier date. The Turco-Tungusoids used cutting weapons of crescent shape (throwing knives, boomerangs, sabres) for hunting small game and their morphology conspicuously contrasted with the Ugro-Scythian straight stabbing point weapons (lance-heads, spearheads, swords, daggers) suitable for butchering big game such as the mammoth, buffalo or horse. Their opposition corresponded to the wide abyss gaping between the leptolithic assemblages of nomadic fishermen and the lanceolithic complexes of big-game steppe hunters.               

    To put these distinctions in terms of genetics, the Europoid and Causacoid axe-tool makers differed from Altaic lineages by exhibiting the blood group O and two heterogeneous haplogroups: their Y DNA belonged either to the European haplogroup I or to the Central Asian haplogroup J. Altaic big-game hunters were of different extraction, Uralids and Mongolids fell to the Y DNA haplogroup N, while Ugroids and Scythoids pertained to the DNA haplogroup Q. The former ranges along a long belt of northern Eurasia from Scandinavia to the Far East. The latter is very abundant in American prairies.

   In the New World Eurasian colonists split into the Algonquin buffalo-hunters and the Uto-Aztecan fishermen. The Algonquins and Quechuans lived in dome-shaped wigwams and displayed the haplogroup Q. The typological patterns of Algonquin tribes corresponded to their Palaeo-Siberian ancestors (Koryaks, Chukchee, Ostyaks, Mansi) with the haplogroup Q but its higher rates remained perceptible only in northern Eurasia. On the other hand, the Uto-Aztecan group continued the ancestry of Tungusic fishermen by building conical tepee-tents and adhering to the Y DNA haplogroup C. The Inuits exhibited the mutation R1-M173 and their overwhelming prevalence in northwest Canada confirmed Eskimo myths about their arrival from Greenland.

   Eurasian haplogroups show a high prevalence of the Y DNA genome C in the Tungusic population, while the Y DNA type N prevails in the Uralic ethnic group. The Y haplogroup R tends to dominate among all branches of the Turcoid stock but it is too wide-spread for drawing accurate conclusions. The higher rates of Y DNA haplogroup Q show high agreement with the westward spread of Scythian and Chudic kurgans. Their funeral architecture propagated to Scandinavia and emerged in western Europe as an offshoot of cairns piled up by Scottish megalith-builders. The Basque megalith-builders in southern Europe descended from Berber colonies in North Africa and inherited also their high rates of Rh-negativity. All megalithic peoples diverged from their Altaic kinsfolk by exhibiting a pronounced predominance of the blood group O. This incongruity concerns the megalithic tribes of Berbers and Basques as well as all Amerindians and undermines the general belief in their appurtenance to Asiatic Mongoloid races. As far as the genetic ABO type O of Amerindians and Eurasian cairn-builders diverges from the blood group B common to other Altaic nations, there exists a simple elucidation for its transmutation at hand. The Asiatic mammoth-hunters drifted to Europe from the Middle Palaeolithic Mousterian culture1 in Siberia and their tall robust stature was due to contacts with Homo lantianensis and H. erectus in China. Their genetic patterns were distorted by overlapping with the blood group O.

   An unconquerable hindrance in the ethnic identification of Altaic peoples is classic comparative linguistics and its assimilated language families. The chief superstratum in the Uralic family is formed by ‘Estono-Marian’ nations (Estonian, Mari, Mordvin, Murom, Merya and Norva or Neroma) with t-plurals. Their fraternal subdominant of kurgan-builders with k-plurals included a group of ‘Chudic Ugrians’ such as Ingrians, Hungarians, Mansi, Khanty, and Veps. A different race was represented also by the Lappish reindeer breeders (Lapps, Samoyeds, Enets, Nenets, Sel’kup) with i/e-plurals. The first two penetrated also into the Iranian area and got Iranised under the Indo-European influence. In their middle the ‘Chudic Ugrians’ reappeared as horseback-riding Scythians (Saka, Sakae, Sogdians) and Medes (Μῆδοι, Madai). Another alien intrusion was due to Uralic ‘Estono-Marian’ people who infiltrated into the Iranian neighbourhood as Sarmatians (from Uralic Cheremiss), Ossetes (Yaszy, Yazygi), Roxolanoi (Rushani), Vakhi and Aryans. Uralic ancestors maintained the original hunting economy whereas the Iranian colonists mastered horseback-riding and their militant cavalry began to invade vast territories of Eurasia. If we abstract from their secondary Iranian surrounding, their long-range travels support the proposal to classify them as Sarmatoids and Scythoids. In case these terms could not surpass the insuperable influence of traditional ethnology, their pair might be denoted by alternative Non-Iranian designations of Uraloids and Abkhazoids. The suffix -oid denotes kindred populations resemblant to the staple group. The suffix -id may be reserved for their corresponding racial varieties.

   All Altaic tribes professed religious ideas anticipating the later doctrines of Islamic monotheism. Their universe was torn asunder by the dualistic opposition discerning deities of the good (Yahve) and the evil (Satan). Judging by their names, they came into being as ancestors of the two opposite tribal moieties and phratries. Nomadic fishermen prayed to Tengri and Baal (Apollo), while the Siberian big-game hunters and Iranian horse-breeders adored Mazda (Mazdaism, Zoroastrism), Mithra (Mithraism), Indra and Marduk. These positive godheads had antipodes in negative evil deities such as Satan, Ahriman, Veles, Esetan and Yezdan, the chief demiurge in Yazidis’ Yazdânism. The origins of such a bipartition inhered in the distinction between clans of ruling chieftains and shaman medicinemen.



Yaszy/Yazygoi/Osi (duck) – Aorsi/Roxolanoi/Russians/Rushani – Mari/Amorites/Marsi (wolf, woodpecker) – Sarmatians/Cheremiss – Wallachians/Volcae (wolf) – Boii/Boiates (Mount Buyan)


steppes, grasslands, savannahs, mountainous grazing pasture lands, hill-forts and fortified oppida, castles on rocky promontories towering over rivers


hunting and breeding the horse, cattle breeding, warriors’ crafts, slavery, blood-letting, fermenting kumys and milk products, sacred soma drink



marquee tents, Bedouin beyt, Russian shater, quadrangular towers with a flat roof and side crenels, granges with inner courtyards, atria with an opening at top and impluvia for rain drops


totem cults of the World Egg, the World Tree and the World Bird, monotheistic dualism adoring good gods of heavens and bad demonic spirits reigning in the underworld


burying children in hollow trees and the grown-ups on the wooden scaffolding, dispatching the dead corpse on long travels on sledges, skis, horses or chariots, exposition of the dead to birds of prey in the desert or wilderness, sky burials, lycanthropy, werewolves


nagualism, belief in an animal alter ego, enemies can be killed only by shooting down their soul’s bird and crushing its egg, enemies’ heads, skulls and bodies are impaled on pointed stakes of a palisade, vampires killed by stabbing a stake into the bosom


brachycephalous skulls, Mongolian epicanthus, flat broad face


Mousterian bifaces, leaf-shaped lance-heads (lanceoliths) 


Mongolian long asymmetric ankle-length gowns bound with a band, ladies’ tiara or head-dress, broad-rimmed hats, leggings for riding horses


ABO group B, Y-DNA haplogroup N, mtDNA haplogroup A


heroic sagas and epics, rhymed octosyllable and dodecasyllable


agglutination, postpositive inlaut gemination, tenues-to-lenes opposition, fricatives þ, θ, γ, χ, collective t-plurals, SOV word-order, analytic syntax with auxiliaries and participles

Table 1. The cultural paradigm of Sarmatoid tribes


Uralo-Sarmatoid Religious Beliefs


    There exists sufficient evidence proving that the prehistoric supreme deity of Ossetes, Yaszy, Osi and Yazygoi must have borne the noun root As-/Es-. The Buryat god of heaven was known as Esege Malan, the creator of all living and existing things. The Kazakhs were infiltrated by Mongolian steppe horse-breeders and adored Jasagnan as the supreme god-creator. The Tungus took over from Palaeo-Siberian neighbours the cult of the heaven-god Eskeri, who created the world by fetching a handful of mud from under deep waters. The Japanese venerated and blessed the deity addressed as Izanagi. He won merits for creating the world by fishing out the mainland with a spear. The Guanches on Tenerife Isle beheld the lord of all gods in the deity called Akhaman. There can be no casual coincidence in the fact that Nordic gods were referred to as aesir. They were described as demiurges occupying the mythical pantheon Asaheim. The Etruscan word for gods eisar ‘gods’ or the Old Iranian word yazata ‘divine being’ is not accidental either. Such attribution is controversial only in case of the Hebrew Yahve.

 The Estonians (king Alfred’s Aeste) and ‘Iranian’ Yaszy included a fraternal moiety of Maris, Marians and Narts, whose names crop up in most terms for Uralic nations (Mordvin, Murom, Merya, Neroma). One host of colonists imported horseback riding and two-wheel chariots from the south Ural to Sumer and became feared as the warrior race of Assyrians and Amorites. Their victory in Babel was probably celebrated by enthroning the sun-god Marduk as the ruler in the pantheon of Babylonian gods. Their remote Nuristani relatives managed to enthrone the god Imra or Mara as the supreme deity in their celestial hierarchy. Their Aryan kinsmen launched a bloody invasion into North India and instated the cult of Indra there. He was regarded as a twin brother of the Egyptian god Ra, while the Ossetic tribal moiety had to do with a less respectable position of Aśurah, a title given to all Aryan deities in general.

 The sect of Yazidis of Kurdish stock revered the heavenly being Yezdan or Êzid ‘God’ and made libations to the evil satan-like spirit Peacock Angel. The latter brought them the ill repute of worshippers praying to the devil. A similar coup-d’état probably overthrew the ruling hierarchy among the Maasai in Africa. They also made living as pastoralist cattle-breeders and professed the religion of Asiatic dualism, but their Satan was embodied by the red god Esetan, a symbol of evil, blood and war. His lifelong antipode was the black god En-Kāī, lauded as the embodiment of the good and justice.1 The Maasai living in tunnel huts must be classed as a Scythoid import from Asia, while t-plurals of Dinka, Nuer and Shilluk cattle-breeders indicate Sarmatoid origin. Moieties and phratries obviously distributed morals according as they sympathised with the righteous majority of kinsmen or with the narrow elite of warriors’ secret sodality. Toponymic studies prove that in processions of colonists all tribal phratries marched together as one host. When they settled down, their progress along ancient routes could be detected in series of ethnonyms alluding to all tribal factions. This tendency is of great import for toponymy since it allows us to trace prehistoric migrations according to associations of tribal ethnonyms.

Table 26 sums up the typological pattern of recurrent traits that simultaneously crop up along most branches and migration routes of the Sarmatoid tribes (Map 9). Their tribal structure can be deciphered from sacred animals and guardian spirits of divinities patronising various phratries. Totemistic counterparts of Sarmatian tribal factions are not entirely clear but they tend to adore birds (duck, peacock, woodpecker). Their theogonies derived the earliest beginnings of life from the World Bird nesting on the World Tree and hatching the World Egg.2 Almost all crucial Uralo-Sarmatian mythic motifs were encoded in the Russian folktale about Koshchey (Boney-Man) the Deathless.3 His figure illustrated the Uralic beliefs in nagualism implying that human existence is hidden in various material or animal fetishes. He was immortal unless somebody disclosed a needle in the egg nesting on an oak-tree on Mount Buyan.4 Uralic nations imagined the World Bird as a duck, the Yazidis fancied the supreme deity as a peacock and the ancient Romans identified their god Mars with a woodpecker. European oral and literary folklore cannot be understood without elucidating that the Hallstatt culture of allegedly Celtic provenience actually originated in the Sarmatian Sintashta-Osipovka complex with chariot burials. Its heroes bogatyrs became the ruling aristocracy occupying hillforts, oppida and castles in most Eurasian countries and created the backbone of their heroic literary tradition.

European oral and literary folklore cannot be understood without elucidating that the Hallstatt culture of allegedly Celtic provenience actually originated in the Sarmatian Sintashta-Osipovka complex with chariot burials. Its heroes bogatyrs became the ruling aristocracy occupying hillforts, oppida and castles in most Eurasian countries and created the backbone of their heroic literary tradition.


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Atlas of Systematic Anthropology I. The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, pp. 84-88




1 J. Buettner-Janusch: Physical Anthropology. New York 1973, p. 253.

1 Peter N. Peregrine - Melvin Amber: Encyclopaedia of Prehistory. Vol. 3: East Asia and Oceania. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2001, Table 15.

1 Alfred C. Hollis: The Masai: their Language and Folklore. Oxford 1905, p. 264-5.

2 V. N. Toporov: K rekonstrukcii mifa o mirovom jajce. Trudy po znakovym sistemam 3. Urartu 1967; L’Arbero universale. In: Ricerche semiotice. Torino 1973.

3 A. N. Afanas’ev: Poeticheskiye vozzreniya slavyan na prirodu. Moskva 1865-9, s. 131.

4 Andrew Lang: The Red Fairy Book: Charlottesville 1996.