Prehistoric tribes

Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric haplogroups








*     Genetic taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europids

*     Nordids

*     Indids

*     Littoralids

*     Caucasoids

*     Elamitoids

*     Negrids

*     Melanids

*     Tungids

*     Pelasgids

*     Cimbroids

*     Turanids 

*     Ugro-Scythids

*     Uralo-Sarmatids

*     Lappids

*     Sinids



The Pelasgo-Tungusoid Human Varieties with Y-DNA Haplogroups CT, T and C

Click on names of human varieties (with yellow background) and read about their decomposition into ethnic subgroups

Notice traditional fallacies and preconceptions concerning the traditional misleading categories of human races

Clickable terms are red on yellow background






Map 1. The Y-DNA Haplogroups of Levalloisians, Mediterranids, Pontids, Tungids, and Polynesians








































Levalloisian Early Gracile Neanderthalers 

    The Levalloisian culture is usually understood as a convenient name for a definite type of Palaeolithic technology of processing flakes. It derives its name from finds excavated at Levallois-Perret near Paris whose age is estimated at 250,000 BC. Its flakes were made of well-chosen flint pebble-stones hit by a bone implement at a steep angle. The idea was to give well-prepared flakes sharp edges that need no secondary retouching. It prepared blocks of flint by one carefully prepared blow and made long scars of flakes with a Levalloisian bone punch struck with a hammer-stone. The block of flint was carefully prepared on a wooden platform for precisely directed blows. This technique did not require secondary trimming or retouch. Flaking long triangular or prismatic chips turned the pebble into a cylindrical tortoise-core with polygon edges. The basic use of flakes was to cut meat and scrape fat from skins. While the cylindrical types served as hide-scrapers and skinning-knives, the thin prismatic pieces with a sharp point could be used also as primitive spearheads.

     The concept of Levalloisian flake working ceased to be used for a well-defined group of finds in central France and gradually degenerated into a convenient term for stone-working technique. Although its use ranged from France to India and East Africa, archaeologists refuse to associate it with a definite population or a stock of mankind. Their thought is restricted by stereotypes of Francocentrism that indulges in the chronology of French finds without considering their propagation all over the world. They forget that the Mousterian and the Levalloisian flake-tool tradition must have witnessed the division of Mongoloid races of Asia into their two major branches, the Ural-Mongolian big-game hunters and the Turco-Tungus small-game hunting fishermen. The differentiation of Levalloisian technology into small microliths and prismatic flakes must be interpreted as its division into Turkoid cliff-dwellers and Tungusoid lake-dwellers.

     The Levalloisian technique of flake working must be a valid term for a large stock of mankind because its tradition lasted several hundred thousand years and spread to all continents. Its origins must be sought in central Asia because the earliest finds come from Dara-i Kur in Afghanistan. The long narrow blades of Levalloisian type were dug up also in the Narmada River Basin and on Potwar Plateau lying in its close neighbourhood (Fagan 1996: 50-52). The Soan culture that flourished in Pakistan and East Punjab mixed chopping-tools with Levalloisian flakes. In the Pre-Soan or Early Soan most flake tools were of Clactonian type. The Late Soan B contained typical Levalloisian parallel-sided flakes with a plain striking platform at a high angle to the flake surface (Wooley, Hawkes 1962: 167-8). Okladnikov and Larichev discovered Levalloisian flakes also in the Lower Palaeolithic of Mongolia and northwest China. The sites at Otson-Mant and Ikh-Bogdo exhibited pebble stone choppers with blades and discoid flakes of Levalloisian design (Tcheboksarov 1966: 41).

     The Levalloisian tradition survived to the Upper Palaeolithic in southern Siberia and Russia. It was cultivated by the Upper Palaeolithic settlements on the Upper Don, the Lower Desna and Byelo-Russia. The Volga-Oka culture used very traditional Levalloisian industry without any denticulation. It was a typical culture of riverside fishermen with settlements rimming banks of rivers. In the Middle Kama basin there were no geometric microliths, only prismatic knives (Avdusin 1977: 41). In Siberia some archaic Upper Palaolithic scrapers of Levalloisian variety were found on the river Angara. Lots of archaic Levalloisian flake tools were excavated in Ust’-Belaya.

(from Pavel Bělíček: Prehistric Dialects II, Prague 2004, pp. 576-577)

Tungids: Asiatic Nomadic Fishers with Conical Tepee Huts

   One of the most archaic tribes is recognised in the Tungusoid lake-dwelling fishermen. Tungusic nations occupy a secondary homeland in northeast Siberia and from here they proceeded to the tertiary cradle-land north of the Black Sea. The latter became the starting-point of the Aurignacian westward colonisations (37,000 BP). In a relief displayed at L’Institut du Paleontologie humaine at Vallois the Chancelade man with a gracile Europoid physiognomy was labelled as a Tungid. The hypothetical cradle of Pre-Aurignacians is situated at the archaeological site Kostenki (39,000 BC) on the Don River.1 About 5,000 BC their descendants founded sites of the pit-grave culture referred to as Yamna or Yamnaya. Their survivors may be identified with the medieval tribes of Polovtsy, Polane, Kypchaks and Volga Bulgars. Nowadays they are classified as Turcoids because their languages got assimilated under the pressure of the fraternal moiety of Turcoids residing east of the Caspian. The secondary impact of Slavs in the north and Turcoids in the south caused that they now remain scattered and dispersed all over Eurasia. Traditional hypotheses reckoned with a diaspora launching an eastward colonisation that arrived in northeast Siberia about 40,000 BC. Owing to this plantation the rapid watercourses of Siberia were settled by the Tungus tribes of Evenks, Nanais, Negidals, Oroch and Udege people. A new different account is offered by population genetics that advocates a westward move of the Y-DNA haplogroup C from Tungusic Siberia to the Pontic settlements of the Yamnaya north of the Black Sea.

    The westward Aurignacian colonisation of nomadic fishermen started from the Black Sea and headed for the lake district on the boundaries of France, Italy and Switzerland. Archaeologists assume that Aurignacian industry propagated in two directions. One group marched through the southern Balkans and continued south of the Alps to Italy. The other group advanced along the Danube Basin as far as the Pyrenees and arrived in the Iberian Peninsula. Special types of its artifacts were manufactured by the Bachokirian group in Bulgaria, the Pavlovian culture in Moravia and the Uluzzian in Italy. Their possible descendants survived for ages in the Chasséen cultures of Lagozza and Polada remarkable for building lakeside post-dwellings. Herodot described the lifestyle of Macedonian lake-dwellers called Paeones: “In the centre of the lake is a timbered scaffolding on high piers, accessible over one narrow footbridge ... They get these stakes from the Orbelos mountains and whoever gets married drives three stakes into the lake-ground for each of his wives. They live in huts built on the scaffolding and every hut can be entered only over a drawbridge projecting above the water. Little babies are tied up with a rope by their legs in fear lest they should fall down into the water.”2

  The role of the Antelian culture in Palestine is uncertain as beside the Tungusic migration route the Aurignacian cultural type is detected also in the Near East and eastern Africa. These areas lie below sea level along the Great Depression and teem with lakes favoured as fishing grounds by nomadic fishermen. Their slender gracile constitution gave rise to Chris Stringer’s out-of-Africa theory1 explaining the arrival of Homo sapiens from eastern Africa. Their industry consisted of Leptolithic prismatic knives classified as products of either Aurignacian or Levalloisian flake-tool cultures. The usual dating of Levalloisian artefacts ranges from 125,000 to 500,000 BP and supports hypotheses of the African origin of Levalloisian techniques of knapping flakes.





















Tungus/Danaids (Diana – bear) – Del(ph)ians (Pythia – dolphin) – Pelasgians (Apollo, Lycaeon – wolf) – Latins  (Leto – swan)


lakeside and riverside nomadic fishing, streets of rows of post-houses or stilt-dwellings facing the waterside area, columnal architecture on shores


nomadic fishing, catching sweet-water fish, hunting antelopes, breeding goats and sheep, eating oak acorns, planting cherry trees



lakeside dwellings, lake platforms, tepee tents, circular conical tents with poles crossed into a wreath and bound at the top, post-dwellings and stilt-dwellings on the lake, round houses on pillars erected over water surface, megaron with two columns in the hall, palace architecture with arcades, colonnades, porticos and triangular gables, often without inner walls


totemism, worshipping totem ancestors in the reincarnation of the wolf, the bear, the swan and the dolphin, a cult of twins, myths about the tribal descent from the pair of twins or the Roman Gemini, Greek Castor – Pollux, Polish LelPolel


round pit-graves with flexed knees sprinkled by ochre haematite paint, stone steles of warriors and menhirs standing over graves

petrothanasia: faith in the post-mortal transubstantiation of the tragically deceased into a rock or a strong predacious fish


Levalloisian leptolithic knives, Aurignacian prismatic knives, long cutting weapons and sabres, armour with feather head-bands


long black hair, whitish pale complexion, graceful stature, slender leptosomous constitution common to Mediterranids, beautiful face


Turkish kaftan tied by a belt round the waist, drinking rhytons and chalices out of horns stuck behind the belt, head-bands


ABO group B, Y DNA C1-C5, possibly Y DNA F/T, mtDNA C


auletic monodies to the flute, elegiac distichs with parallelisms


agglutination, SOV word order, vowel synharmony, l-plurals, unvoiced sonorants, tenues-to-lenes opposition, lambdacism, affricates tl-, dl-, laminal retroflex stops, their dephonologisation t/dtl/dll, penultimate accent

Table 24. The cultural paradigm of Tungids and Pelasgids

Lake-Dwellers with Tepee Tents and Conical Roundhouses

In quest of the lost ethnic identity of prehistoric lake-dwellers we may resort either to Pelasgian ‘Sea Peoples’2 or to the ancient nations of Lydians, Carians and Lelegs in Anatolia. The Pelasgian sun-god Apollo was a brother of Diana and descended from Zeus’ union with Leto on the isle of Delos. His family-tree contains ethnonymic roots Pel-/Bel-, Dan-/Tung-, Lat-/Let-, Del-/Tel- of the chief Pelasgian phratries. Greek Pelasgians had brothers in the moiety of Danaids and in Italy the Arcadian king Lycaeon initiated a plantation of the Apulli and Daunii.3 On the British Isles the torch of Pelasgian nationality was brought by the La Tène culture and the kindred tribes of Belgae (or their predecessors Firbolgs) and Tuath Daanu. In the Levant their relatives worshipping the god Baal were referred to as biblical Philistines and known as nations of Palestinians and Dans.

    The ancestors of Tungids remembered the glorious heydays of the Aurignacian colonisation around 36,000 BC, when their bone industry and long prismatic Leptolithic knives conquered all ends of Eurasia. In the northeast territory of Siberia they can be discerned distinctly according to the Tungusic haplogroup C. There are hardly higher rates of C anywhere in Europe and Africa because they were overpopulated by other cultures. The Tungusic haplogroup C is probably a transmutation of the Y DNA haplogroup T propagated in relatively high rates all over Europe and Africa. About 11,000 BC Tungusic peoples got across the Bering Strait and flooded the New World with their typical tall conical tent (tepee or tipi) made from long posts crossed and tied at the top with a rope from sinews. Here their relay was taken over by Uto-Aztecan tribes living predominantly on lakeside and riverside fishing. Their settlements were outnumbered by Algonquin buffalo hunters with the Y DNA haplogroup Q, who became the American dominant number one. The subdominant number two fell to the Uto-Aztecan fishermen with the Y DNA haplogroup C represented at best by the Aztec lake-dwellers inhabiting high lakeside tepees.

    Populations of lake-dwelling fishermen with pit-graves and ochre haematite burials can be divided into several colonisations with regard to folk architecture. Its earliest tribal archetype was represented by tree-dwellings with a nest on a primitive platform sheltered by tied boughs. Such summer time abodes have survived up to now in the Solomon Islands. Their later innovations gave rise to high circular conical tents out of long poles coated by hides or skins. The earliest pit-graves from Blombos Cave in South Africa date from 70,000 BP and may be associated with Levalloisian encampments with prismatic flakes. From here Levalloisian industry spread to the Horn of Africa and Palestine where it split into the Indo-Pakistani branch represented by the Soanian complex and the northwest stream wandering along the water streams of southern Europe. Fishermen occupying these areas developed the peculiar folk architecture of South African roundhouses called rondavels. Their construction looks like a round cylindrical hut from poles sheltered by a conical roof. Rondavels predefined the prototype of roundhouses that range with high occurrence from southeast Africa to Palestine and Greece. From the Balkans they pursue the coastline settlements of the Neolithic Cardial Impresso pottery as far as France and the British Isles. In Apulia it is common to build roundhouses with a conical thatched roof called trullo, in Spanish Galicia there appears a similar folk style palloza and in Wales, Scotland and Ireland they are known as crannogs. The British crannog lies on a wooden platform supported by stakes. It is linked with the lakeshore by a bridge called dun in Ireland and causeway in Britain. Another series of conical roundhouses propagated to the Indian subcontinent and led to settlements of Tulu and Telugu tribes in southern India.

   A structurally different complex of round post-dwellings made appearance in northern areas. The Uto-Aztecan tepees are terrestrial constructions, they were built on lakes only by Aztecs and the Uros people on Lake Tititaca in Peru. Here they have developed into floating raft-dwellings and artificial lakeside isles accessed by balsa boats. American tepee abodes are obviously derived from Tungusic high conical circular tents with a sort of wreath crossing at the top. Their closest parallel is seen in the Karelian type lavvu, a tall conical construction topped by a wreath of crossed poles. Its adapted derivate is found also in Finnish A-shaped chalets with steep roofs. Some of British crannogs also resemble tepees.

   Lake-dwellings in the region of French, Swiss and Italian lakes are post-constructions of Epi-Aurignacian provenience but they illustrate a transition from roundhouses to oblong ground-plans. They lie on wooden platforms supported by stakes rammed down into the lake bottom. Their group encompasses the Chasséan culture (4500 BC) in southeast France, the Lagozza complex (4500 BC) in northeast Italy and the Cortailloid site (3800 BC) in east Switzerland. Similar post-dwelling architecture is exhibited by the Polada culture (2300-1600 BC) in north Italy or the Pfyn group (3900-3500 BC) and the Horgen complex (3500-3400 BC) in south Germany. Italy has analogous sites of palafitte on Lago Isolino and terramare in the Po River valley (1700 BC).

   The remains of Aurignacian culture can be reconstructed according to graves with ochre burial. Ochre dye was regarded as a sign of heavens and interpreted as a blessing given to the deceased on his way to the Tartarus. The Pontic Tungids were mostly Slavinised as Bulgars, Poles, Balts, Ladogans and Karelians. Their noticeable colonies can be discerned in the Polish Polane, Opolians and Malopolsko, their Belorussian branch concentrated in the Polochane and the Ukrainian clansmen in the Polane residing south of Kiev. The advent of Polane to Central Poland from the east was probably recorded by Map 6 of Holocene sites with layers of red dye.1


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Atlas of Systematic Anthropology I. The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, pp. 75-79