Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population genetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics

 

 

Reformatorium

Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

*     Racial taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europe

*     Asia

*     Anatolia

*     Caucasus

*     Africa

*     Arabia

*     India

*     China

*     Indonesia

*     Indochina

*     Polynesia

*     Australia

*     North America

*     South America

 

 

*     Spain                France

*     Italy       Benelux

*      Britain      Celts

*      Scandinavia  

*     Germany

*     Balts        Slavs

*     Greece

*     Anatolia

 

 

                     The Ethnic Tribal Groups of Europe

                         Clickable terms are red on the yellow background

 

 

 

 

 

Ancient European Races

(from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 8, p. 47)

 

 

 

The Racial Distribution of European Populations

 

The Transparenztheorie Account of Indo-European Tribes and Languages

(from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 5, p. 29)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Traditional Taxa of European Racial Groups

 

   Before revisiting modern racial concepts in the light of population genetics, it is obligatory to supply a recapitulative survey of traditional terms as they prevail in current usage. Some categorial taxa that look inappropriate are denoted by the mark as candidates for deletion.

Cro-Magnids (40,000 BP) are traditionally identified with the Homo sapiens sapiens progenitor, who was considered as ancestral to European Nordids. Some of their finds at Lascaux and Mladeč were however reclassified as Aurignacians and gracile Pre-Aurignacians from East Africa. Their affiliation to Nordids is open to disputes. They might be classified as Euro-Tungids like Chancelade man.

Nordids, Nordics, Teutonordids1, Corded Nordics2: common terms for Gotho-Frisian tribes manu-facturing the Corded Ware pottery. Their concept is based on geographical reference and ought to be narrowed by a new ethnonymic label ‘Gothids’. 

Europids, Danubian Nordics, Corded Nordics: common terms for the farming tribes of the Neolithic Linear Ware with the Y-haplogroup I2. Their suitability is menaced by the Semitic ethnonymic roots Europ-, Eburon-, Iber-, Hebr- and Afric- characteristic of the Magdalenian hunters with the Y-hg R1b.

Atlanto Mediterranids: strongly dolichocephalic straight-nosed types of Mediterranids common in the northern Iberian peninsula, France and Italy. It probably stands for the Bellbeaker Folk (2900 BC) that procreated the ethnic faction of Franco-Swabians, who are related to Gotho-Frisians and share their Y-haplogroup I1.

Littoralids: a useful term3 applicable to the Campignian culture (10,000 BC) of beachcombers and shell-gatherers. They were a depigmented light-skinned dolichocephalous variety that left heaps of shell midden on seaside sand-dunes. These Campignian dumps of shellfish waste were excavated in Denmark, Bretagne, Britain, Scandinavia and Portugal. Their finds are traditionally known as kjøkkenmøddinger. The Muge or Mugem complex sites (8000 BC) in Portugal were probable predecessors of the Bell Beaker culture of southwestern Europe, while northern Campignians seems to be ancestors of Gotho-Frisians manufacturers of the Corded Ware.

   Bronze Age Europe was ruled by the unknown race of tall brachycephalous megalith-builders with convex aquiline noses, negative Rhesus factor the Y-haplogroup Q. Owing to its archaic antiquity from the times of Aterian expansion (c. 30,000 BC), their settlements are scattered, depleted and degenerate. They evolved from the Palaeolithic hunters of big mammals, who exterminated original megafauna on all continents. European folktales called them ‘ogres’ and ‘ogresses’, while Marija Gimbutas gave them the nickname of ‘Kurgan people’1. Their convenient denomination may be found in the tribal identity of Ugrids, Scythoids, Baskid, Abkhazoids and Mushkoids because these ethnonyms can be detected as names of their tribal phratries along most of their migration routes. Traditional anthropology vacillates and denotes them as Dinarids, Adriatics, Armenoids or Baskids.

Dinarids, Adriatids: two terms that fail to convey clear ethnic content. Their etymology is derived from the Dinaric Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Dinarids are renowned for brachycephalic and planoccipital skulls and long faces. They display long and convex noses similar to Armenoid and Semitic aquiline varieties. Their pigmentation ranges from intermediate to dark complexion. The Dinaric strain may be attributed to the Bronze Age culture of Tumuli Graves (Hügelgräberkultur, Aunjetitz culture). Kindred forms in Italy are referred to as Dinaricised Mediterraneans. The etymology of Mount Dinara hints at the Dalmatian ethnonymic root Danaan pertinent to Pelasgoid lake-dwellers. Better substitutes ought to allude to their true ethnonymic denotations such as Baskids, Moesians, Bessi, Mysians, Cyclopes or Mushkoids. Our proposal relates them to Megalithic tribes of ‘ogres’ and Ugrids.

Baskids (J. Deniker’s Atlanto-Mediterranean, C. S. Coon’s Pirenaic race: a dinariform variety of the Spanish Pyrenees remarkable for Basques exhibiting brachycephaly, taller stature and hooked nose. Their hair colour varies from black to red and blond hair and associates them with Berber Aterians.

Armenid (J. Czekanowski’s Armenoid2): an inappropriate term for Caucasian hook-nosed varieties because Caucasians and Armenians represent a dense mixture of diverse nationalities. The real bearers of their racial features were the Abkhaz, Scythians, Medes, Mitanni or Mushkoi.

Brünn type (Coon 1939): a brachycephalic subrace, whose term is derived from Brno in Moravia. It represents another remainder of prehistoric Hügelgräberkultur plantations akin to Dalo-Falids. Its skin is usually light and depigmented, while its hair colour is usually blond, light brown and red. It is typical especially of the indigenous archaic tribes of Ireland.

Norids: a frequent term for dinariform features detected in the Danube Basin, especially in Austria, Slovenia, Moravia and Bohemia. Its common traits include taller height, great brachycephaly and convex noses. Other typical Noric and Dinaric peculiarities consist of leptorrhiny (narrow noses), great nose length and a shallow nasion depression. Yet the predominant ethnic element was due to the Volcae, Boihemi3, Marharii, Marcomanni. The Norids are related to the Baskids in the same way as the Uralid Marids are related to Ugric Mansi. Their stock must correctly be identified with Hallstattians but it is requisite to notice that they did not originate from Celts but from the Sarmatian Sintashta-Petrovka culture with analogous chariot burials. Sarmatians should be classified as Iranised Uralic Marids and kept apart from Ugrids by the taxonomic label of Sarmatids.

Hallstatt Nordics: C. S. Coon’s term for the racial group of Hallstatt colonists in Austria classified erroneously as Celts. They were identical to the Nordic aesir, who later “found a refuge in Sweden and in the eastern valleys of southern Norway.”4 Nordic sagas derived Thor’s origin from Thrace and confirmed the reasonable impression that the Hallstatt people were actually Sarmatids. They came to Austria from the seats of the Sintashta culture and practiced similar chariot burials.

   Another circle of misunderstandings is entangled with the so-called Mediterranean race. It refers mostly to descendants of Palaeolithic and Mesolithic nomadic fishermen accustomed to fishing along the banks and shores of waterside areas. Their industry developed either from the Leptolithic culture of Levalloisian and Aurignacian prismatic knives or from the Microlithic cultures of Magdalenian and Maglemosian stamp. The former belonged to the ethnic family of Pelasgo-Tungids, who specialised to the lake-dwelling ecosystem and ichthyophagous nutrition. They exhibited slim and slender stature with mesocephalous skulls. Their appearance differed from other races by inclination to leptomorphous phenotypes. Their characteristic implied leptorrhinia (narrow noses), leptoprosopy (high-headed and long narrow faces) and also the typical Aurignacian industry of long leptolithic knives. The latter group was formed by their remote relatives of the Turcoid or Turanid stock. They were noticeable for small microliths, triangular and trapezoid flakes inlaid in bones or wooden shafts used as throwing knives or cutting sabres. They should be reclassified as Tungids and Turanids.

Mediterranids: a vague term that does not distinguish two different prehistoric races of nomadic fishermen and reindeer hunters with osteoceratic cultures: Euro-Tungids (Leptolithic industry) of Aurignacian origin and Euro-Turanids (Microlithic industry) of Magdalenian provenience.

Tungids: depleted and rarefied remnants of Aurignacian and Levalloisian fishermen with lacustrine pile-dwellings. They were descendants of the Cardial Ware and cultures of conic roundhouses spanning from Palestine, Byblos, Crete, Greek Pelasgians, Illyrians, Carantanians as far as Britain and Ireland. They exhibited leptomorphous forms with darker pigmentation. On the other hand, northern Tungids of Aurignacian provenance were seated north of the Black Sea, built tepee-shaped stilt-dwellings on lakes and looked discernible according to lighter whitish complexion. Additional Aurignacian attributes were pentagonal-ellipsoid skull, low orbits and arched superciliaries seen in Combe-Capelle man and also Chancelade man.

Turanids: a broad term that does not distinguish the earlier colonisation of Magdalenians (17,000 BC) with the Y-haplogroup R1b and the later arrival of Maglemosians (12,000 BC) with the Y-haplogroup R1a. The former produced burnished pottery and tended to cut artificial rock-hewn caves, galleries and shafts. The latter were bog people, who made pointed-base pottery with fir-tree patterns.

Teutonids (Ripley’s Teutonic race1): Boreal Germanic nations can be defined as Gothids, who were Cimbrisised by Maglemosian Teutonids (Y-hg R1a) in the north. Meridional Germanic nations are formed by Danubian Europids, who were Cimbricised by Magdalenian Teutonids (R1b) in the south. The greatest error of Indo-German philology consists in the inability to discern the true Indo-Europeans in the Gotho-Frisian tribes and the false Indo-Europeans in the Cimbric, Teutonic and Germanic tribes, who colonised northwestern Europe with the hosts of Maglemosian reindeer hunters and fishermen.

Dalo-Falid, also Phalian, Eickstedt’s Dalo-Nordide2, Günther’s Fälisch3, Lundman’s Faelide4 or his Västmanland type5: alternative catchwords for inhabitants of Pfalz and Westfalen. The alternative synonym of Dalisch or Dalo-Nordide race was coined in 1924 by Fritz Paudler6 on the ground of the Swedish toponym Dalarna. Higher depigmentation in its appearance goes with conspicuously gracile or graciliced countenance and narrow-faced leptoprosopy. Probably one of Epi-Aurignacian colonies affiliated to Volga Bulgars. Possible alternatives include terms such as Teuto-Tungids.

Gracile Mediterranids or also Ibero-Insular types: a racial variety notable for shorter or medium stature, gracile look and skeleton and small mesomorphous skull. Their distribution is densest in South Italy and the Iberian Peninsula. A conspicuous attribute is seen in small hands and feet.

Tronder type: Trøndertype, Swedish Tröndertyp, Lundman’s North Germanic mesocephal: various terms denoting remainders of Mesolithic Microlithic cultures along the western coasts of Norway. Similar phenotypes are denoted also as Borebby, Orkdal and Hardanger variety.

These traditional terms sound like provisional geonyms that owe their usage to lack of convenient ethnic catchwords. They fail to suggest clear correspondences to ethnic, dialectal and cultural regions.

 

The Nordic and Danubian Gothids as the Core of Indo-Europeans

 

  Traditional concepts of European tribes insist on a sort of holistic isolationism that identifies tribes with nations cast like ingots in the mould of medieval monarchies. A more sophisticated view divides Gothids into phratries (Jutes, Frisians, Angles, Saxons) denoted as Endo-Gothids, and lineages of migration streams designated as Syn-Gothids. Streams jut out of the cradleland of the tribal diaspora like tentacles of an octopus or branches of a genealogic tree growing out of one trunk. The entire genealogic tree might be referred to as a union of Pan-Gothids (Table 11).

  The common Gothonic starting-point may be found in the farmers of the Danubian Linear Ware (5500–4500 BC), who seem to have coincided with the Y-DNA haplogroup I2-M423 in Central Europe. The Funnelbeaker or Trichterbecher culture (c. 4300 BC – 2800 BC) occupied seats that were later seized by colonists of the Bootaxt people with the Corded Ware (2900 BC – circa 2350). They also showed inclinations to agriculture although their earliest excavated sites depict them as littoral sand-dune dwellers, who built characteristic Gothic wurts or Frisian terps surrounded by shell midden. Their ancestry may be traced back to the earlier past of the Campignian shell midden complex (cca 10 000 BC)3 and the Portuguese Muge culture.4 The former term was originally coined by C. Schuchhardt but now it is neglected as less common. Its use however proves requisite for sheltering early migrations of the Corded Ware in North Asia. Numerous shell dump heaps were characteristic of the Japanese Jomon culture (16 000 BP) with cord-marked pottery. They were created by beachcombing littoralists gathering mussel shell on seaside beaches. Their original Y-DNA haplogroup must be of I1-M253 type corresponding to the blood group O and tall dolichocephalous stature. The area of the Portuguese Muge culture is sometimes interpreted as a possible starting point of the Bell-Beaker folk (2900 – 1800 BC). Its southern promontories pursued Atlantic coastlines as far as the Gulf of Guinea, Angola and South Africa. 

Pan-Gothids <3px>

Campignian Littoralids, Danubian Europids, Scandinavian Nordids, Franco-Swabian Littoralids

Endo-Gothids

Goths/Jutes, Frisians, Angles,  Saxons

Syn-Gothids

northern Finnish stream, central Prussian stream, southern Balkan stream

Finnish stream

Hiittinen, Hiettanen, Gydan, Okhotsk, Hokaido, Haida

Prussian stream

Prussian, Yotvingian, Permiac, Udmurt, Kitai,

Balkan stream

Getes, Khotan, Khotanese, Gotho-Tocharians,  Masagetes, Brahmans, Khattriyas

Table 11. The systematic classification of Gothoid phratries and tribes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Classification of Non-Indo-European Races in Europe

   Every Indo-European family consists of one dominant core that forms its pure-blooded ‘eteo-race’ and several concomitant subraces. Inherent subraces are consanguine ‘endo-races’, heterogeneous subraces are ‘allo-races’, alien invaders who acculturated as cohabitants of the dominant eteo-race. So Angles and Saxons belonged to the connate ‘endo-races’ of Jutes and Frisians. On the other hand, the Celts were only a disparate and inorganic collection of alien ‘allo-races’ that huddled around the eteo-races of Gauls and Gaels. Their territories overlapped with plantations of Magdalenian Iberians, Epi-Cardial Pelasgoids, Poladan lake-dwellers, Welsh sheep-breeders as well as Scottish cairn- and broch-builders. Despite regular intertribal skirmishes nobody ousted, expelled and exterminated anyone, all prehistoric migrations occurred as inimical but relatively peaceful infiltrations as ancient tribes occupied different natural ecotypes.

The principal thesis assumes that the greatest part of the Indo-European lexical substance was created by Europids (Danubian Gothids) but relevant contributions were made also by megalith-builders, Alpinids and Mediterranids. An intensive impact was enforced only by colonisations of Magdalenian Iberids and Maglemosian Cimbrids (Table 17). Maglemosians gave rise to Germanic languages and triggered the Great Consonant Shift in Common Germanic. The cultural influence of Mediterranids was imported mainly by Aurignacians, Madgalenians and Epi-Cardial Pelasgids (Table 15). Their linguistic loans partly survived only in Lydian and Carian. Alpinids created the domains of Celtic, Albanian and Slavic languages that are remarkable for patatalisation, satemisation, nasal vowels, tonal prosody and pitch accents.

Pseudo-Indo-European allochthones = Mediterranids + Ugrids/Macro-Dinarids + Norids + Alpinids

Ugro-Scythoids or Macro-Dinarids = giant brachycephalous beehive-dwellers with convex aquiline noses 

Norids = taller (meso-)brachycephals with four-pitch-roof marquee tents

Alpinids/Lappids = short brachycephalous semidugout-dwellers with concave noses 

Mediterranids = slender gracile mesocephals with small feet, narrow eye-fissure and high cheekbones

Tungids = slender gracile mesocephals with residual epicanthus and slanting eyes; they lived in tall

     tepee tents with crossed tent-poles and built anthropomorphous stelae

Pelasgids = slender gracile mesocephals with dark hair and dark brown eyes; they lived in conical

     roundhouses/rondavels and used ochre burials with tall standing stones (menhirs)

Turanids = slender gracile mesocephals who lived in rock shelters and artificial rockcut caves

Mediterranids = Euro-Turanids + Euro-Tungids

Ugro-Scythoids or Macro-Dinarids → Epi-Aterian Baskids + tumuli-grave Dinarids + kurgan-builders

Norids ¬ Hallstattians (900 BC) ¬Sarmatids ¬Sintashta culture (2,100 BC) ¬ Comb Ware (6,000 BC)

Euro-Tungids Levalloisian (95,000 BP) + Cardial Ware (6,400 BC) + Aurignacian (37,000 BC)

Alpinids → Gravettians (33,000 BP) + Stroked Ware (4,500 BC) + Cinerary Urns + Lusatians (1150 BC)

Table 12. Pseudo-Indo-European peoples (Allo-Europoids) of allochthonous Asiatic origin

Basco-Scytho-Ugric cultural morphology

Funeral architecture: dolmen, cairn (Britain), round barrow, tholos (Mycenaean),

Monumental architecture: broch (Scotland), henge (Britain), nuraghe (Sardinia), talailot (Menorca)

Baskids, megalith-builders: [VasconesVasatesSotiates (Pyrenees)] + [Agri DecumatesMediomatriciPictones Pictavi (North France)] + [Picts – Scots – Ogres (Britain)] + [Scandza – Varangians (Scandinavia)]

Dinarids, tumulus cultures, Hügelgräber: [MattiaciSeducii AngrivariiFosi (West Germany)] + [Picentes, Peucetians – Messapians (Italy)]

Cyclopes: [Mycenaeans – Argolids] + [Mysians (Anatolia) – Bessi – Macedonians – Moesians]

Scythoids: [Abkhaz – Abazin] + [Matiana – Media – Scythia – Sogdiana – Sacae]

Table 18. A survey of Bascoid ethnonyms and cultural morphology

   Mediterranids. The traditional category of Mediterranids is firmly attached to the territory north of the Mediterranean Sea but it evokes association with similar human phenotypes evidenced in northern Europe as well as in India and other parts of Asia. Its semantic content is too broad and should be narrowed to two closely-related brotherly races of prehistoric nomadic fishers: Tungids with long prismatic leptolithic industry and Turanids with small triangular or trapezoid flakes inserted into bone hafts. These genuine varieties of Mediterranids are noted for exhibiting mesocephalic skull indices and high hypsicranic faces. The absence of these features makes it possible to distinguish them clearly from false Mediterranids (Atlanto-Mediterranids, North Atlantids, Berids) with long-headed crania.

Euro-Tungids (also called Ladogans, Baltids, Karelians, Hyperboreans; nomadic fishermen, lacustrine lake-dwellers, pole-dwellings, tepee huts, Finnish steep-sloping chalets with tepee-like gables, Lappish huts laevu and goahti, lakeside fishermen, acorn-eaters (?), ABO group B, low frequencies of Y-hg C):

N1 Karelian Tungids: Karelians (Karjalabotn, Kirjaland),1

NW Latvian Tungids: Baldayskaya Range ® Baltinava ® Latgalians ® Latvia ® Curones2,

W1 Polochan Tungids: Polochans, Poloczanians3 (at Polotsk, Belarusia) ® Lithuanians ® Belostok ® Polans (also Polanes, Polanians, Polish Polanie in the Warta river basin) ® Płońsk-Bielsk ® Poel ® Flensburg ® Danes (Dani)

W2 Polonian Tungids: Volga Bulgars ® Polovtsi (Polish  Połowcy, Plauci) ® Polans (Opolans),

 Połomia ® Bolokhoveni4,

W3 Euro-Tungids: Plone ® Belesane ® Ostfalen (Ostfalia) ® Westfalen ® Belgium (Belgica, Belginum) ® Bellovaci ®  Flemish Flanders (Flandria) ® Belgae (south England).

W4 Euro-Tungids: Balti (Romania) ® Ipoly, Pilis, Ipel’ (Hungary, Slovakia) ® Pálava (Moravia) ® Tuenagove ® Blesigove ®  Pfalz (Germany),

NW Pelasgids: Pelasgians (Pelasgiotes) ® Belegezites (Thessaly) ® Illyri (Illyrioi, Illyrii) ® Dalmatians ® Carinthians (Slovenes in Austria and Slovenia)

Table 13. The colonisations and migration routes of European Tungids

Tungusoid Mediterranids. The group of European Tungids is not documented satisfactorily by recent anthropometric measurements because it dates back to archaic Palaeolithic eras. The core of their populations arrived to west Europe with Aurignacian colonists from the Black Sea around 38,000 BC. Their heralds bore the original Tungusic Y-haplogroup C but with the progress of time they declined to zero values. Its rates were not increased by the Cortaillod-Chaséen and the Latenian revival, either. Neither of them brought a new genetic infusion of this genome from the east. As the Latenian/La Tène culture ranges from the Danubian estuary to France, Brittany and Ireland, the Pontic seaboard looks like the possible starting-point of its influx. As a consequence, we ought to adopt a more plausible hypothesis that the Latenian bloom should be estimated as a cultural revitalisation of Chasseén lake-dwellers propagating in eastward as well as westward direction. Provable conclusions indicate only repeated Latenian passages to Britain and Ireland from the boundary region between Switzerland, Italy and France. Toponymic studies suggest the following ethnic migrations of the Pontic homeland.

   The earliest ancestors of Spanish and West-European Iberids can be seen in Magdalenians, known as reindeer hunters with microlithic tool implements. The typical representative of their race was Chancelade man, documented also in ostial finds from Laugerie-Basse and the Duruthy cave near Sorde-l'Abbaye. Chancelade man exhibited a narrow but tall and long cranium, tall and wide face, prominent cheekbones, tall and narrow nose and high orbits. His burials, however, displayed also some incompatible heterogeneous admixtures: ochre dye characteristic of Aurignacian Tungids, and also some Europoid heritage. Europoid elements were demonstrated especially in the strong chin and the sagittal keel spanning along the suture between the parietal bones.

Mediterranids     Euro-Turanids + Euro-Tungids (Aurignacians) + Euro-Pelasgids (Cardial Impresso)

Euro-Turanids (Mesolithic microlithic flake-tool cultures of Turcoid descent)   boreal Turanids (Maglemosians) + meridional Turanids (Magdalenians)

Magdalenians                 Iberids (rockcut-dwellers, reindeer hunters, burnished ware, Y-hg R1b, 17,000 BP)

Iberids                           → Iberians + Eburones + Kimbern + Cambrians + Hibernids

Madgalenians                 Azilians (rock art, imprints of phalanges, hepatomancy, 14,000 BP) > Cantabrians

Kimbern                         Hamburgian complex (15,500 BP) > Ahrensburgian culture (12,900 BP)

Ahrensburgian culture Ertebølle culture (ca 5300 BC) > Kimbern (Himmerland) + Trønderids

Trønderids                     → Komsa culture in western Norway (10,000 BC)

Cambrians                      Creswellians (Y-hg R1b, 13,000 BP, British Cambria, Cumbri)

Eburones                       Seine-Oise-Marne group (> Eburones, 3100 BC, rock-cut gallery tombs)

Hibernids                       Fomoire (Irish cliff-dwellers) + Hiberni, inhabitants of rock shelters in Ireland

Ahrensburgian       Tardenoisians (Y-hg R-U152, 8,000 BC)

Tardenoisians  Tyrrhenes (> Etruscans) + Siculi (> Sicilians)

Dnieper-Donets culture, Y-hg R1a Swiderians  (11,000 BC) Silesians

Maglemosians       Cimbrids (bog people, fishers, pointed-base pottery, Y-hg R1a, 9,000 BC)

Cimbrids            Cimbrians + Teutons + Germans

Table 16. The genealogic branching of Microlithic Euro-Turanids

 

Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, pp. 7-16.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euro-Turanic Mediterranids: Cimbrids, Iberids and Iberian

 

 

Euro-Lappids

 

Gaelids from Mauretanian Avalon, the Deverel-Rimbury culture of incinerators with urns, 1600 BC

Alpinids/Gallids of Epigravettian origin (33,000 BC), arrival from Anatolian, Levant and the Somali Galla)

Scando-Lappids, Lapplanders, Uralised Tardigravettians

Samoyeds (Enets, Nenets, Selkup), Uralised Sinids from the Altai Mountains

Albanids, Tsakonians and Laconians (probably from Libya)

Hellenes, Ionians (<*Alviones), Aiolians (<*Alvioles),

Colchians with face urns and hut urns, from Caucasian Albania and the Trialetti culture (3000 BC),

a westward offshoot of Indids (Hindoo Lappids) with cremation burials,

Slavids (from Lusatian culture on the Elbe, 1300 BC)

Eastern Slavids (from Ants, the Androvo cremation culture 1500) BC and Cemetery H culture (1800 BC)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Perigordian microblade culture (33,000 BC) of cave-dwelling fishers and hunters of reindeer with throwing knives and clubs

Magdalenian Turanids (17,000 BC), who lived as cave.dwellers, hunted reindeer and produced Microlithic flakes

Irish Hiberni and Hebrideans, cave-dwelling hunters and cliff-dwelling raiders (Fomoire)

Etruscan pirates, Sicilian Siculi and Sicani   

Cimbrids - Maglemosian Turanids (9,000 BC), bog people with Microlithic flake-tool weapons and pointed-base pottery

Phoenician Punoids (Phoenicians sailors and Carthaginians, 800 BC)

Iberian Tartessians and Turdulli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euro-Pelasgic Mediterranids: Euro-Tungids and Euro-Pelasgids

 

 

 

Giant Ugro-Scythids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


archaic dispersed remains of Levalloisian flake-tools (95,000 BC) and Y-haplotype T

Pelasgids, Danaids and Palestinians with columnal architecture

Epi-Cardial Pelasgoids, waterside fishermen with roundhouses (Y-haplotype T)

Aurignacian Tungids (38,000 BC), eastern fishermen with tepee tents and Y-haplotype C

Pontids, flat-faced slender fishermen, ochre pit-grave culture Yamnaya

Polanids, East European ochre cultures in the Ukraine, Belorussia and Poland

Ladogans, lacustrine fishermen with the Y-haplotype C

Karelids, lake-dwellers with remains of tepee tents in A-shaped houses and houses with slanting roofs and gables with crossed wooden logs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

dispersed archaic groups of Epi-Mousterian survivors settled in original seats as Epi-Solutreans, Epi-Szeletians and Epi-Aterians. Some groups may have continued traditions of Epi-Clactonians, Epi-Tayacians and Epi-Tabuninians who specialised in big-game hunting.

Baskids, tall brachycephalous and mesocephalous types with convex hooked noses; carriers of Bronze Age Megalithic; their forbears may be Solutrean horse hunters with leaf-shaped lanceheads

Pictones, probable progeny of ogres, Ugroid megalith-builders and Solutreans in France

Berberids, carriers of Bronze Age megalithic cultures (3000 BC) developing traditions of Aterians

Scandids, Nordic megalith-builders recruited from Scandinavian leaf-shaped points and partly also from Varangians drinting to Norway from Kola Peninsula 

Scottids, British cairn- and broch- builders, who built cupolar molehill subterranean lodges and were relatedto Orcadians in the Orkneys 

Dinarids, tall robust stature with brachycephalous and platycephalous skulls and narrow convex aquiline noses; probable descent from Epi-Szeletian big-game hunters and mammoth slaughterers,  theoretically they may survive in Moesians and Hügelgräberkultur (1600 BC) of Bronze Age tumuli graves in the Balkans, South Bohemia and South Germany 

Abkhazids, descendants of the Maikop megalithic kurgan culture

Scythids, Iranised Ugrids with mummification rites and kurgan graves

Baltic Megalithic, Bronze Ages cultures of megalith-cultures in the northeast of Europe

Euro-Gothids, Euro-Nordids

Campignians, precursors of Gotho-Frisian Littoralids with shell-midden dumps, 10,000 BC

Scando-Gothids with admixtures of Scandids and graves of long barrow with long skulls 

Campagniform Bell-Beaker-Folk descending from Portugal Mugem culture, 9,000 BC

Macrolithic Pre-Europid Littoralids with cord-marked ware migrating to the Urals, 12,000 BC Cordeds, Corded Ware cultures with boat-shaped axes (Bootäxte, 2900 BC), Y-haplotype I1

tall Nordic dolichocephalic types with long skulls, narrow noses and broad chins, blonde hair, light blue eyes and light whitish skin; they live in collective longhouses 

Prussians, Yotvingians, Udmurts, Permyaks and Khitans with cord-marked wares

Coon’s Cordeds, Corded Ware cultures with boat-shaped axes (Bootäxte, 2900 BC)

Anglo-Saxons, Juto-Frisians, who colonised Britain after 420 AD, Y-haplotype I1

Quadian Europids, Quades and Langobards, the core of Linear Band Ware agricultural tribes in the Neolithic, 5500 BC, possible descendants of the Micoquian Macrolithic

Anatolian Macrolithic, Phrygians in Asia Minors as forbears of Europids with Y-haplotype I2

 

Gothonids, Caucasoids and Elamitoids

Caucasoids, oriental robust dolichocephals with long skulls and leptorrhine noses,

Elamitoids, oriental robust dolichocephal agriculturalists with bullfighting, boukrania idols, 

flat-roofed multicellular houses, sanctuaries in subterranean labyrinths

 

Uralids, Norids and Sarmatids

 

Uralids are moose-hunters and horse-eaters (hippophagi) in northern reagions of Russia and Siberia, their colomnisation became visible in the Comb-Ware and Pitted Ware cultures, 6,000 BC 

Sarmatids, horse hunters of the Sintashta culture south of the Urals, who domesticated horses and learnt to breed them and graze their herds of steppe grasslands

Norids, an expansion of Sarmatian Boii, Volcae and Marharii to the Danube river basin

Hallstattians, a settlement of Sarmatoid Nordics to the Celtic area in Austria and Switzerland

Aesir, and ofshoot of Hallstattian Norids in southwest  Norway

(Extract  from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, pp. 7-16.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



1 William Z. Ripley: The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. London 1899.

2 Carleton S. Coon: The Races of Europe. The Macmillan Company. New York, 1939.

3 J. Deniker defined Littoralids as a Armenoid-West-Mediterranean mixture of Atlanto-Mediterraneans  of Littoral and Nord Occidental types and included also descendants of the Cardial Ware.

1 Maria Gimbutas: Proto-Indo-European Culture: The Kurgan Culture during the Fifth, Fourth, and Third Millennia B.C., Indo-European and Indo-Europeans. Papers Presented at the Third Indo-European Conference at the University of Pennsylvania, ed. George Cardona, Henry M. Hoenigswald & Alfred Senn. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1970, pp. 155–197.

2 Jan Czekanowski: Człowiek ve czasie i przestrzeni. Warsawa 1934, 2nd ed. 1967.

3 Tacitus, Germania 28; P. Velleius Paterculus 2, 109, 3.

1 William Z. Ripley: The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study, 1899.

2 Egon von Eickstedt: Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit. Stuttgart: Enke, 1934.

3 Hans F. K. Günther: Rassenkunde Europas. München 1929; Kleine Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes, 1934.

4 Bertil J. Lundman: The Races and Peoples of Europe. New York : IAAEE, cop. 1977.

5 Bertil J. Lundman: The Racial History of Scandinavia: an Outline. New York: The International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics, (I.A.A.E.E.), 1963.

6 Fritz Paudler: Die hellfarbigen Rassen und ihre Sprachstämme, Kulturen und Urheimaten. Ein neues Bild vom heutigen und urzeitlichen Europa. Heidelberg, 1924.

3 C. Blake Whelan: Studies in the Significance of the Irish Stone Age: The Campignian Question. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy: Archaeology, Culture, History, Literature. Vol. 42 (1934/1935), pp. 121-143.

4 C. Schuchhardt: Das technische Element in den Anfängen der Kunst. Prähist. Zeits., I, 37.

1 The Chronicle of Novgorod, 1016-1471; The Chronicle of Duke Erik, Chapter 10-The founding of Stockholm.

2 Östen Dahl (ed.): The Circum-Baltic Languages: Typology and Contact, vol. 1, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001;  W. K. Matthews: Medieval Baltic Tribes. American Slavic and East European Review, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1949, pp. 126-136;  Livonian Rhymed Chronicle. 6794–6800, 9095–9100.

3 Nestor’s Chronicle.

4 Alexandru V. Boldur: Istoria Basarabiei. V. Frunza, 1992.