Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*       Racial taxonomy

*       Ethnic taxonomy

*        Europe

*        Asia

*        Anatolia

*         Caucasus

*       Africa

*       Arabia

*       India

*       China

*       Indonesia

*        Indochina

*        Polynesia

*        Australia

*       North America

*       South America



*        Spain             France

*        Italy       Schweiz

*        Britain      Celts

*       Scandinavia  

*       Germany

*       Slavs     Balts      

*         Greece   Thrace

*        Anatolia



                     The Racial Varieties of North America

                         Clickable terms are red on the yellow background









North American Indian tribes and languages

(from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties, Prague 2018, p. 67)   




































The Traditional Grouping of Amerindian Tribes and Racial Varieties


   The general predominance of Ugrids all over the American continent does not solve issues of its racial anthropogenesis because Algonquian buffalo-hunters and Andean megalith-builders were surrounded by dozens of other Eurasian races of equal import and interest. The tribes of buffalo-hunters prevailed in the grassland prairies of the Plains, lived in dome-shaped wigwam-tents, and buried their dead in cupolar mounds. They formed a dominant ethnicity in the eastern central part of North America but their adventurous expeditions ranged as far as Mexico and the Peruvian Andes. Eickstedt called them Silvids because they partly inhabited also the Eastern Woodlands but their genuine heartland lay in the Plains, so it is reasonable to rename them as Planids. Owing to their ethnic identity with Algonquian tribes and the Algic family, their justifiable racial term may also read as ‘Algids’ or ‘Algonquinds’.

   Silvids. Current usage of raceonyms does not respect ethnic groupings and tends to obscure somatic phenotypes by geographical catchwords. So the dominant ethnic group of Algonquian buffalo-hunters usually hides out under the label of the racial category of Silvids. It owes etymology to the Latin word silva for ‘forest, tree’ and established its usage in reference to the Northeastern Woodlands. This territory was inhabited by Central Algonquian and Siouan speakers but its term is more suitable for the subgroup of the Sioux. The droves of buffalos did not live in forests but indulged in the prairies of the Great Plains. The term Silvid (Homo sapiens colombicus) was originally coined by Egon von Eickstedt1 but it should be replaced by the more appropriate designation of Planids (from Latin plan ‘plain’), because the central core of Algonquian hunters had the most abundant distribution in the Plains.

   Appalachids. Another subrace of Silvids is formed by the Appalachids, who settled down in the eastern Atlantic areas around the Appalachian Mountains. Siouan Silvids and Caddoan Appalachids were both exposed to frequent raids of Algonquian Planids but their stocks had developed from heterogeneous roots. Owing to longer dolichocephalous heads, thinner bodies and sturdy chins, Biassuti and Eickstedt designated them as Pre-euripidi ‘Pre-Europids’.2 The concept of Silvids becomes a controversial term if it is interpreted as a superordinate category comprising Planids and Appalachids. In fact, Algonquian Planids, Siouan Silvids and Caddoan Appalachids were independent and heterogeneous racial varieties but Algonquian Planids penetrated into neighbouring territories and exposed them to the convergent impact of Algic tribes.

   Atlantids vs. Pacifids. Serious efforts to redress basic types of categorial labels should take into account also alternative terms domesticated in Eastern Europe. The Soviet anthropologists V. P. Alexeev3 and G. Debets4 emphasised a differential approach to categorial labels and preferred to term Silvids as ‘Atlantic race’. They agreed with the traditional German Rassenkunde by opposing the eastern Atlantic Silvids to the western Pacifids, whose seats were spread all over British Columbia and the western coasts of North America. Their group suffers from similar imperfections as that of Silvids. It blends into one mush Tungusoid fishermen (Salish, Haida, Bella Coola, Nootka tribes) with Athabaskan Lappids, who built sauna sweathouses and lived in semi-dugouts called barabaras. The chain of Amero-Tungids led from Salish peoples in British Columbia to Uto-Aztecan tribes that arrived in Mexico and continued further in the southward direction. On the other hand, Athapaskan hordes left numerous colonies in Arizona and California. They struck roots as Arizonids and Californian Pacifids.

   Uto-Aztecans. In the western regions of the continent the mobile roaming camps of Algonquian buffalo-hunters neighboured on riverside plantations of Uto-Aztecan fishers. They were remarkable for the Tungusoid Y-haplogroup C-M217, referred to also as C2 or C3. Since their genetic affiliation is corroborated also by the characteristic conic tepee tents with the wreath of crossed poles at the top, it is admissible to classify them as an Amero-Tungusic faction descending from Siberian Tungids. Unfortunately, their continuous migration routes were interrupted and broken into two parts distinguished as Pacifids and Sonorids. The main core of Sonorids was formed by Uto-Aztecan tribes, who shared the Aztecan indulgence in lake-dwellings on wooden platforms supported by pillars rammed into the lake bottom.

   Centralids. Another complex of incompatible ethnicities is compressed under the racial label of the Centralids. They owe their name to their seats in Central America and to the intermediary position separating advanced agricultural civilisations in the south from indigenous tribes in the north. Their northern promontories were occupied by Pueblids remarkable for living in fortified pueblos. Their architecture resembled the style of oriental Elamitoids, who tilled the land in oases surrounded by arid wilderness and had to defend their houses by thick walls without windows. In the south a prominent standing among their subgroup was held by populations of the Isthmids, whose term derived from the Latin root isthmusstrait’. It is now applied to the narrow straits of the Mesoamerican isthmus. Both groups showed mixed caste-divided populations, their superstratum was akin to Olmec and Mayan megalith-builders while the lower classes recruited from common field cultivators. Their ethnic customs seem to be compatible with oriental Elamitoid traditions and the b-plural language group.

   Margids. The tribes of Californian Margids were given their name by E. von Eickstedt because they occupy a marginal position on the western Californian coast. Yet their group includes also similar types spread on Floridian coasts and the eastern margins of America. These peripheral sites differ them from Centralids, who occupy central parts of the continent. The main subgroups of Margids include Sonorids, who live in the Sonora desert of southern Arizona, Mexicids based around the Gulf of Mexico, and Californids with short stature and low skulls. The Sonorids encompass the tribes of Seri, Yuma and Pima. The semi-extinct Californids include the Yuki, Wappo and Pomo and the Mexicids consist chiefly from the Otomi and Pima. A brief look at their ethnographic peculiarities demonstrates that the concept of Margids is an artificial name for several incompatible groupings: scattered remains of Uto-Aztecan Tungusoid fishers, short-sized Lappids with semi-subterranean earthen lodges, sauna sweathouses and cremation burials, and Palaeo-Negrids with fringed aprons akin to the Amazonian Tupí-Guaraní. Amerindian racial groups are surveyable in greater detail as follows:


Map 19. R. Biasutti’s distribution of Amerindian races

Eskimids – an umbrella term for northernmost racial groups living inside the Polar Circle; their constitution is believed to have arisen as a result of adapting to the cold arctic climate. Their description involves some Turcoid traits such as short thickset figure, longer heads, short extremities, and Y-haplogroup R*-M173. On the other hand, it is notable for Ugroid and Palaeo-Siberian features such as reddish brown skin, very narrow nasal opening, large head and strong muscular figure. R. Biasutti classified them as Eschimidi, Lundman coined the term ‘Sibiriderna.1

Silvids – tribes with a mesoskelic trunk, tall stature and mesomorph constitution. Their cranial indices are mesocephalic, in the east they exhibit dolichocephaly peculiar to Pre-Europids or Proto-Europids. The leptorrhine nose is narrow but long and strong. Its shape is curved in a convex profile. The skin is light brown but tends to manifest a reddish hue. It is colouring that ensured Amerindians the nickname of ‘redskins’. Silvids occupy a larger domain in peripheral woodland areas. They are related to the Sioux, Mohicans, Iroquois and Delaware.

Atlantids – the efforts to separate the Sioux and Iroquois from Algonquian Silvids made the French anthropologist H. V. Vallois class them as an independent variety of Nord-Atlantique race.2 In his survey of human races he referred to their group as a variety of longer and higher skulls and taller and thinner constitution. This usage was soon taken over by the Austrian paleoanthropologist Albet Drexel, who proposed to speak of North Atlantids3.

Planids – inhabitants of the grassland prairies of the Great Plains, whose subsistence was based on hunting bisons. Their typical tribes were Algonquians comprising the Arapaho, Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Ojibwe/Chippewa and Cree. Their cranium was large-headed, mesocephalic, orthocranic or chamaecranic. The long and prominent nose was leptorrhine with a convex profile. G. Neumann4 proposed to call them Lakotids while R. Biasutti preferred the designation of Dakota race.

Appalacids – a racial variety of Pre-Europids or Proto-Europids that had an ethnic core in Siouan, Iroquois and Caddoan tribes. It was remarkable for tall stature and robust bodies. Their figure was mesoskelic and mesomorph. A remarkable feature was seen in dolichocephalic and hypsicranic skulls as well as weak cheekbones and leptorrhine noses.

Athabaskids – a racial group of Athabaskan/Athapascan Na-Dene tribes that landed on the American continent as late as 200 AD. They were Amero-Lappids remarkable for a smaller and shorter cranium and shorter body stature. Their shorter legs contrasted with longer arms. B. Lundman called them Deneids1 in order to coordinate them with E. Sapir’s Na-Dene language group2.  In our opinion Deneids are Uto-Aztecan Amero-Tungids crossing the plantations of Athabaskan Amero-Lappids.

Arawakids – Athabaskans were genetically associated with Hokan Californids and Arawaks in Venezuela. The latter were associated with the Negrito of Southeast Asia by customs of manufacturing blowing pipes, blowguns and poisoned arrows for hunting rainforest birds, hares and rhodents.

Pacifids – a racial variety that inhabits American western regions along the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. It often gains living by fishing and gives preference to seaside or riverside settlements. The traditional dwelling was a tall tepee tent with crossed poles. Its hair was dark and straight. The large jaws were accompanied by thin lips. The skull was brachycephalic but this feature may be due to intermingling permeation and vicinity with Athabaskid. The same somatic traits can explain their short legs and long arms. 

Sonorids classified as a subgroup of Margids and named after the Sonora desert (Seri, Yuma, Tlapaneco, Papago, Pima). They had a tall stature with meso- or macroskelic constitution, mesocephalic cranial indices and moderately hypsicranic heads. Their black hair was straight and their skin colour varied from yellowish-reddish hues to dark brown shades.

Margids – phenotypes with long skulls and prominent supraorbital arches. The skull was long and supraorbital arches were outstanding. Their face was broad but low, the nose was relatively wide and low-rooted owing to the high Palaeo-Negroid admixture in their blood.

Andids – a racial variety of militant conquerors that got its name after the Andean mountains. It was spread in Peruvian and Bolivian highlands. Mountainous heights were responsible for strong and large chest, Mongoloid heritage was noticeable in high prominent cheekbones, epicanthus and narrow eyes. The hair was straight, the mouth was wide and the chin was sturdy. A typical Algonquian, Quechuan and Aymaran feature was recognised in the long hooked nose.

Amazonids – a typical race of tropical rainforests in the Amazonian river basin. Its physiognomy preserved some archaic traits of Palaeo-Negroid stocks in medium-long and dolichocephalous heads, high noses and nasal indices. Its name was proposed by Renato Biasutti, recommended by J. Imbelloni3 but refuted by Egon von Eickstedt and Salvador Canals Frau, who mentioned them as Brasilids.4 Their considerable adstratum concerned Arawak Lappids, who shot poisoned arrows from blowing pipes and were consanguine with the Negrito in Southeast Asia. These Arawaks had a hand also in the high occurrence of short thick-set and sturdy figures, matronism and female lumbar lordosis. The genuine Amazonids had broad and steep foreheads, displayed weak cheekbones and lacked also other characteristic Mongoloid features. Their migration routes spanned from British Columbia to the Californian Margids and linked them also with allies among Isthmids.

Pampids – Patagonian race of llama-breeding pastoralists encompassing the Puelche, Tehuelche and  Charrúa tribes. There are described as mesocephalic or moderately brachycephalic types with mildly hypsicranic tendencies. Their figure is medium tall, the hair is straight and the skin is brown.

Lagids or Lagoids – a dolichocephalic and eventually hyperdolichocephalic race of Littoralids concentrated in East Brazil around Lagoa Santa and the Jê macro-family. It is classified as Pre-Europids but due to substratum of Palaeo-Negrids it exhibits large supraorbital ridges, deep set eyes and high sexual dimorphism.

Huarpids – the variety of Lagids and shell midden Littoralids on West Chillean coastline beaches.

Table 11. The survey of Amerindian races


Map 23. The architectural typology of Amerindian races

  One of the most reliable criteria in solving ethnic identity is seen in popular architecture and folk costume designs. They withstand fleeting ephemeral fashions and survive for many millennia. For anthropologists they offer only facultative cultural markers but their testimony is as convincing as anthropometric indices. This is why Table 15 attempts to confront races and ethnic groups with tribal dwellings. Additional evidence on types of human abodes and shelters is summed in their regional typology and distribution depicted in Map 23. Current methods of ethnology and anthropology base their foundations on the classification of language families acknowledged by the highly-respected authorities of comparative linguistics. Its taxonomic considerations are, however, mostly built on comparing cognates in the lexical substance retrieved in neighbouring tongues and dialects. A serious warning is uttered by authors who argue that a lot of lexical cognates arose as loan-words and reveal only short-range affinity. Better results of the mid-range scope are supplied by population genetics and its study of chromosomal genomes. Surprisingly enough, the most convincing guide in quest for long-range and long-term affinities looms in architectural ethnology and the design of folk vestment.




























































A Revised Taxonomy of American Racial Groups


   The anthropological composition of Amerindian peoples is found in the optimal state of relative integrity and purity because its categorisation roughly preserves the early state of ethnic and racial differentiation in the period of Mesolithic colonisations. This means that original ethnicities still maintain approximate contours of their prehistoric diffusion and their tribal assortment has not yet been wiped out by fusions into contact pseudo-families. As compared to ethnological taxonomy, however, Amerindian anthropological classification is more burdened by excessive areal generalisations. Since the principal prerequisite of typological coordination insists on rough structural agreement between racial, ethnic, archaeological and linguistic categories, their mutual divergences may be removed by comparison, calibration and equalising. Reasons for revisiting the traditional American anthropological taxonomy (Maps 18, 19) point out that there exist too many large imprecise racial categories that do not fit their respective parallels in tribal units, ethnic traditions and archaeological cultures.

  The second direction of rectification recommends amendment by the systematic comparison of Eurasian, Siberian and Amerindian races. American phenotypes cannot be treated as brand-new formations and have to be estimated as mutations of definite Siberian predecessors. Human races were not created a few centuries ago but were moulded as early as in the Lower Palaeolithic. Monogenetic theories may object that Peruvian Andids with strong and large thorax arose owing to rare air and high altitudes in the Andean mountains but climatic substantiation pertains to secondary reasons of racial transmutations. Primary causes have to be sought in the African and Euroasian genetic heritage and its subsequent haphazard misalliances in the New World. Almost all Amerindian races are mutants of the Old World genetic prototypes, so their anthropometric measurements manifest shifts towards the average values of the dominant Ugric, Algonquian and Andean standard. That implies conclusion that their genetic parameters underwent a sort of ‘Ugrisation’ and distortion toward the Algonquian, Olmec and Quechuan median. Such racial contamination made Athapaskan, Californian and Arawakan Amero-Lappids become invisible because their stature is less short-sized, their crania less brachycephalous and their nasal profile less concave than their Siberian average standards. Another result is that their legs are less short and their arms are not so long as might be expected. On the other hand, owing to relative isolation, the rates of their characteristic blood group A dramatically increased. In the Athabaskans, Blackfoot and Indian Bloods they rose to 80 per cent, which are the highest values in the world. Yet similar assimilative effects affected also all Amerindian minority races.

   A simple cure for recovering from the ailments in the nomenclature of classic anthropology is to adopt a binomial and trinomial taxonomy proposed in Table 12. It compares general Eurasian labels in its middle column with Eickstedt’s and Biasutti’s Amerocentrist coinage. 

Egon Eickstedt

Renato Biasutti

Revised taxonomy













Planide, Silvide





Appalacide, Silvide





Pueblide, Zentralide










Isthmide, Zentralide





Andide (Peru)



Quechua, Aymara










Gê, Kayapó















Yaghans, Fuegans


Table 12. Amerindian races compared and revisited

Convenient taxa should consist of two or three parts, an individual specification, a classificatory base for determining the categorical standing in the general taxonomic systematics and occasionally also reference to historical dating. For instance, the following three formulas might stand for different generations of Amerindan Lappids, who left an undeniable imprint on the peopling of the New World:

Athapaskan Amero-Lappids (200 AD),

Californian Hupa Amero-Lappids (200 AD),

Arawak Latino-Lappids (9,500 BC).

   The best solution is offered by pursuing chains of typological parallels along ancient routes of ethnic diffusion. This method was successfully applied by the Trubetzkoy’s model of Kettentheorie oriented to searching for long-range comparisons immune to contact loanword influences. This method appreciates structural similarities more than accidental lexical loans. It refuses Wellentheorie’s efforts to view tribal territories as large concentric republics and regards them as octopuses, whose radial tentacles jut out into all directions (Table 13). The arrow symbol denotes descent and geographic succession along migration routes. The prefix SE1- designates the first route in the southeast direction. 

Amero-Ugrids Andids + Mixtecs + Algonquians (megafauna hunting, wigwam beehive-tents, mummification, megalithic burial mounds)

Quechuan Amero-Ugrids (immigration 11,500 BC, Folson culture)

Andids: Olmec Mixtec Quechua → Inga → Aymara

Algonquian Amero-Ugrids (Folsom culture 9,000 BC, buffalo-hunters, wigwams, fluted leaf-shaped projectiles, tall mesocephals with hooked noses)

SE1-Amero-Ugrids: Mesquakie-Sauk Cree Micmac Massachuset Narraganset Mahican Mixtec Delaware Powhatan

SE2-Amero-Ugrids: Ojibway Winnebago Illinois

Amero-Tungids Salish + Uto-Aztecans + Uros

Salish Amero-Tungids: Bella Coola Kwakiutl Nootka Salish

Uto-Aztecan Amero-Tungids (nomadic fishermen, lacustrine lake-dwellers, pole-dwellings, tepee huts, acorn-eating, ABO group B, Y-hg C2, C2b):

SW1-Amero-Tungids: Paiute ­ Pima

SW2-Amero-Tungids: Shoshoni → Ute → Hopi → Comanche → Luiseño-Cahuilla Tepehuan Pagago → Aztecans → Uru people (on raft-dwellings of Titicaca Lake)

Amero-Lappids Athapaskans + Arawakans + Maipureans

Arawakan and Maipurean Amero-Lappids (immigration about 9,500 BC, the Negrito with blowing pipes and poisoned arrows, short stature, brachycephaly, cremation burials, semidugouts, lean-tos):

SW2-Amero-Lappids (immigration from 200 AD to 1500 CE, short stature, brachycephaly, saunas, sweathouses, pithouses, semidugouts, zemlyankas, cremation burials, ABO group A, men’s caps, women’s kerchief):  Athapascan → Blackfeet → Atsina → Kalispel → Crow → Apache → Navajo1

SW1-Amero-Lappids (Na-Dene2): Chilkotin → Athapascan → Hupa (California)

Amero-Turanids → Eskimids → Cree → Floridian Seminole → Caribs

NE-Amero-Turanids (marine-mammal hunters, fishermen, rock shelters, rock overhangs, rock art, microblades, small tool tradition, Clovis projectiles, Y-hg R1-M173, circumcision): Eskimids → Inuit

SE-Amero-Turanids (bowmen, fishermen, pirates, Y-hg R1-M173, circumcision, loin-cloth):

SW1: Cree IllinoisSeminole (Florida) Caribs; SW2: Hohokam → Tarahumara → Chumash

Amero-Elamitoids (Anasazi basket-makers, 12,000 BC, Puebloans, ergative Mayan languages)

Mesa Verde → Ancestral Pueblo → Hohokam → Mogollon → Mayan language family (Mexico)

Columbian Amero-Literalids (Pacific beachcombers and shellfish-eaters): Aleutians – Tsimshian ( ¯ Haida) Tlingit (matrilineal kinship, collective longhouses from planks, collective feasts)

Amero-Literalids → Lagids (Macro-Gê) + Huarpids (Chile) + Fuegids (Tierra del Fuego)

American Palaeo-Negrids (chamaerrhine dolichocephals with darker skin and wavy hair, platyrhinia and broad nose profile with nasal indices  from 87.0 to 91.9.high, barebreasted women, fringed grass aprons, wearing water vessels on the top of the head, pebble choppers, prenasalised stops mb-, nd-, ng-)

S-Palaeo-Negrids: Cocopa Ngbere Tupí Guaraní Mbya

Table 13. Migration routes of Amerindian races

   Table 13 recommends to divide Amerindian varieties into groups of (a) Ugroid buffalo-hunters with cupolar wigwam tents, (b) Tungusoid fishers and deer-hunters with tepee constructions and acorn-eating subsistence, (c) Europoid Littoralids, shellfish eaters and beachcombers living in longhouses on seaside sand dunes, (d) short-sized brachycephalous Lappids with cremation burials, sauna sweathouses and mushroom poisoning alchemy, (e) Floridan and Caribean Turanids, who wore loin-cloths and practiced piracy, club-throwing and circumcision, (f) dolichocephalous Elamitoid Pueblan basket-makers with b-plurals and flat-roofed labyrinth houses out of clay, (g) dolichocephalous and platyrrhine Amazonian Palaeo-Negrids with pebble-stone choppers and agricultural dispositions.

   Eskimids. The Eskimids show mixed Ugroid (copular igloos dwellings, Palaeo-Siberian language structures) and Turcoid traits (microblade small-tool tradition, Mongolian epicanthus and lid folds, protruding cheekbones, shorter figure and limbs). They are separated from Amerindians as Palaeo-Siberians but may be associated with the archaic American Clovis culture. Their Palaeo-Siberian birth is probable but it should deny their departure from Greenland and Scandinavia. They may have descended from the Mesolithic seal-hunters ranging along the northern Norwegian coastlines. Their earliest ancestors probably stemmed from the Mesolithic Komsa culture (10,000 BC), whose people lived on hunting the seal, walruses and other marine mammals. The Komsa seal-hunters exhibited a hybrid Scandinavian composition from mesocephalous microlith-manufacturers with the Y-haplogroup R*-M173 and Europoid dolichocephalous axe-tool makers. The latter were beachcombers prevailing in the Fosna-Hensbacka cultural group akin to Goths. This hypothesis may explain the prevailing distribution of the Eskimo in the eastern arctic zone in the vicinity of Greenland and Iceland and the high occurrence of Europoid dolichocephals in this geographic area. This racial strain is manifested by very low cephalic indices detected in the arctic Eskimos (Greenland Eskimo 78.1. Copper Eskimo 77.6, Northern Alaska Eskimo 78.0)1.

    The ethnonymy of the Eskimo is derived from the Algonquin Montagnais expression ayas̆kimew that means ‘a person who laces a snowshoe’. Another frequent name is Inuit, whose meaning in Eskimo is ‘man’. The current theories reckon with origins from the common Eskimo-Aleut (Eskimaleut) family. Its genuine core consisted of Eskimo and Aleutian seal-hunters, who spread all over arctic area about 10,000 BC. They spread the Arctic Small-Tool Tradition remarkable for harpoons, small microblade cores and seal-oil lamps. The majority of Aleutians are Eskimoids but their eastern faction consists of Littoralids gathering shellfish and other seafood. This population infiltrated also among the Pacifids of British Columbia and represented the lineage of seaside beachcombers related to the people of the Japanese Jomon culture. Their use of textile plant-woven materials differed from the leather clothing and seal hides employed by Eskimoid Aleutians.

   The most acceptable conclusion is that the Eskimo do not form a homogeneous nationality but a multi-ethnic geographic domain, where the decisive role was played by the Palaeo-Siberian tribes of Miutut and Eskimo with domed igloo dwellings houses. Their populations were divided into several generations of colonists and infiltrated by several heterogeneous adstrata.






Palaeo-Siberian Ugro-Scythoids, who were common ancestors of Ugro-Scythoids and Uralids

Eskimo Inuits descending from the Icelandic Thule culture that colonised also Greenland (200 BC), they  lived in archaic dome-shaped whalebone houses

Eskimo Miute tribes with domed beehives and horizontal entrance corridors

Eskimo-Scythoids with domed snow igloo shelters, descendance from the Dorset culture (500 BC)




Turanids and Turcoid seal-hunters with mesocephalic skulls and the arctic small-tool cultures

Han-Kutchin Palaeo-Turanids with rock shelters and the Y-haplogroup R*-M173 (13,500 BC)

Kaska Turanids with conico-cylindrical huts, breechcloths, turbans and circumcision, predecessors

of ‘Five Southeastern Civilised tribes’ (Seminole, Natchez, Kuchi, Cherokee, Creek, Shawnee)


Tungusoid fishers with mesocephalic skulls and tepee dwellings (Dene-Dena, Tanaina, Tlingit, Tlicho)


Aleutian Pre-Europoid Littoralids with notably dolichocephalic skulls and rectangular plank houses,

(Haida, Bella Coola, Chinook, Tsimshian and the Coast Salish tribes, partly also Tlingit)

Table 14. The disambiguation of Amerindian Eskimos

   Pacifids. Racial incongruity is observed also in the seemingly compact category of Pacifids inhabiting the western coasts of North America. There are two strains competing, the totemistic patrilineal tribes of Tungusoid fishers and the matrilineal tribes of Europoid littoral beachcombers. The former are represented by Bella Coola, Salish and Kwakiutl, who lived in tepee constructions out of wooden planks. Their abodes were characterised as conical tepee tents with two or four layers of sewed mat woven from the tule plant. The first Europeans called Salish or Salis tribes ‘flatheads’ because they applied cranial deformation. They had a federation with Kootenai people and in addition to fishing they hunted deer. These groups must have pertained to the Siberian Tungusic peoples with tepee tents and the male haplogroup C. Yet their rates of C are lower than it may be expected because they were overpowered by the Algonquian haplotype Q. Nevertheless, their haplogroup C held the third position among the most frequent Amerindian genotypes.

    Littoral beachcombers. The Europoid faction of Pacifids is illustrated by the Haida, Kootenai, Tsimshian or Tlingit, who adopted the life-style of littoral beachcombers and observed the rules of matrilineal kinship. They had a two-moiety matrilinear kinship system, where women enjoyed high social respect. Also the Tlingit had a sort of matrilineal kinship, their society was divided into two moieties, one adored the Raven and the other deified the Eagle. Tsimshian and Haida tribes cherished fraternal family spirit since they dwelt in collective longhouses and organised public social meetings. Their tribal solidarity was tightened by the custom of giving collective feasts called potlatch and yaawk. These social events were held on the occasion of deaths, burials and births.

   The Europoid Pacifids may be classified as a continuation of Aleutian Littoralids on the American continent. They were described as beachcombers since they relied on littoral seafood diet and ate nothing but ‘beach food. The Tsimshians dwelt in large rectangular longhouses, which were built from cedar posts and logs. Their racial phenotypes differed a lot from their Tungusoid neighbours by lack of epicanthus and other Mongolian features. They found allies in the Wakashan group comprising the Kwakiutl/Kwakwala, Haisla and Anishinabe ethnicities. This group inhabited seaside regions and lived on fishing or catching octopuses.  

   Uto-Aztecan Tungids. The Tungusoid lineage in the Pacifids continued travels in the southward direction and founded plantations in the regions of northern California and Mexico. It belonged to the Uto-Aztecan family descending from the Northwest Californian culture of Post Pattern Lake-Dwellers (11,000 BC – 7,000 BC), which was discovered by Chester C. Post in 1938. It actually constituted a part of Stephen Bedwell’s Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition1, centred around Clear Lake and Borax Lake. Archaeologists associate them with Pomo, Hokan, Yuki and Wappo peoples. Its survivors and close cognates were probably the Californian tribes of Miwok, Mi'kwak, Maidu, who dwelt in conical tepee tents. The Miwok pertained to totemistic tribes of northern California and spoke Utian languages. They built tepee constructions made out of wooden planks. The Californian Maidu lived in forests of oak-trees because their staple diet was based on acorns. The customs of acorn-eating was reported by Pausanias2 among their Greek Pelasgian ancestors and was peculiar to all most eastern Tungusoid populations. Oak acorns were gathered by women, shelled, ground and eaten in mush.

   Amero-Turanids. The first colonists of the Americas stemmed from the archaic tribe of Turanids with the male Y-haplogroup R*-M173. The typical products of their art industry were microblades, rock paintings and dwellings under rock overhangs. Early rock shelters were discovered at the sites of Toca da Tira Peia (Brasil, 22,000 BP) and Pedra Furada (Brasil, 11,000 BP). The Argentinian site Cueva de las Manos (13,000 BP) was called ‘Cave of Hands’ and exhibited the typical imprints of human phalanges. Such ritual motifs were very common to rock painting of Azilians in France or Australian boomerang-throwers with the Y-haplotype R*-M173. They illustrated cultural patterns compatible with the Clovis culture (13,500 BP) and traditions of the Eskimo sea-mammal hunters. Their Clovis industry production consisted of two parts, one comprised fluted spear points suitable for killing bisons, the other focused on manufacturing microblades used for killing small game. This dichotomy documented two ethnic elements in the hybrid constitution of Mesolithic seal-hunters. It certified their probable descent from the Norwegian Komsa complex (10,000 BC). One component in the Komsa and Clovis complex was due to fishers with microblades and the other to beehive-dwellers hunting the buffalo with leaf-shaped spear points. The invasion of the Clovis incomers was followed by the advent of Folsom megafauna-hunters (9,000 BC) of pure Algonquian extraction.

   The characteristic habits of all Turcoid tribes were circumcision, rock paintings, rock shelters, rock-hewn caves and cliff-dwellings. Their distribution is dispersed all over both Americas since they tended to sponge on alien agricultural civilisations. In Mesa Verde, Hohokam and Ancestral Pueblo their rock-overhands sheltered multi-roomed and flat-roofed houses of Puebloans and created a new architectural design of what we mean by Ameridian cliff-dwellings. The practices of circumcision were witnessed in the upper caste of most Andean civilisations from Mexico to Peru. They were common among the Missouri Mandans and on the shores of Lake Superior inhabited by the Chippewa Indians and the Ojibwe people.

   Cliff-dwellers. A special chapter in Amerindian anthropology is envisaged in cliff-dwellers, who built miniatures of pueblos under steep rock overhangs and artificial rock-hewn caves. Their famous exhibits are evidenced in Manitou cliff dwellings in Colorado Springs, the Cliff Palace in Mesa Verde, Montezuma Castle and Canyon de Chelly in Arizona. Their architecture seems to be associated with Brazilian sites of rock shelters with mummified corpses. They were found as early as in the Brazilian localities of Toca da Tira Peia (22,000 BP) and Pedra Furada. They showed hybrid composition typical of the three Amerindian races: besides Pueblids of Elamitoid cultural morphology it comprised elements of Ugroid mound-builders and the Proto-Turcoid small-tool tradition with the archaic Y-haplogroup R*-M173. Their lineage was imported to America by its dominant race of Ugroid mummifiers with the Y-haplotype Q-M242. Its origin was derived from the Koryak, Ket, Mansi-Khanty and Ugrian people in northeastern Siberia. Mutual contact between the Eskimids, Pueblids and Andids probably resulted in the rise of a new Y-type Q-M3 peculiar only to the upper classes of Andean civilisations. The new subtype of Q explains why Christopher Columbus could observe the practices of circumcision in the Mayas, Aztecs and Inkas.  

   Caribbean pirates. The populations of Caribs were feared amidst neighbours as dangerous fishers, pirates and cannibals. Piratic assaults were practiced only by the western tribes of Ciboney Taino on Cuba and their mainland cognates Kuiva and Cuiba. The neutral central position was held by the ethnicity of Taino fishers in Haiti. They lived on fish and seafaring trade without launching aggressive attacks on peaceful neighbours.

   Antilleans. Such ill-repute was not attached to the eastern tribes of Iñera/Ignera and Kalina. They belonged to the Antilleans, who were akin to the elfin short-sized Arawak people. Their stature was less than 157 cm and their heads showed brachycephous indices higher than 83. The Isles of Antilles had a Pre-Columbian etymology known among native aborigines as Antilia. Its inhabitants were classed as Caribs divided between the Island Caribs, known as the Kalinago, and Mainland Caribs headed by the tribes of Kalina.

   Arawakans. About 9500 BC the New World was shattered by two mainstreams of dwarfish cremators. The left stream was conducted by Antilleans, who invaded the mainland as Arawaks. They created the dominant ethnic layer in northern Venezuela. The second branch chose the right isthmic route and rushed southward as Maipureans. Their hosts ranged as far as Bolivia and Uruguay. Their advent can be registered by anthropological measurements revealing short-statured minorities in the statistic census of Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. One of the Maipurean languages is called Chiquitano because its speakers were nicknamed as Chiquitos. This ethnic term derived from the Spanish etymology chiquitos, ‘little ones’. They imported cremations, tonal languages, blowguns and poisoned arrows.

  Amero-Lappids. Arawak tribes are one of neglected Ameriandian races, who gather honey and hunt birds by shooting poisoned arrows from blowing-pipes. This mode of subsistence is now peculiar only to the dwarfish Negrito in Southeast Asia. Ancient historians, however, described similar customs of poisoning projectile heads among Celtic Lapponoids in western Europe. They probably came from Beringia about 9,500 BC but it is possible to speculate also about their Oceanic diaspora in the Pacific. Polynesian legends tell stories about the dwarfish forest people, who were allegedly less tall than 60 cm. In Hawaii they were known as menahune and on Tahiti as manahune. Their cranial indices align them as brachycephalous types amounting to rates higher than 83. Their tribal hero was  Ha'alulu, a smart elf residing close to Halekala Crater.

   Athabaskids. Short-sized brachycephals appeared in America in two waves. The first colonisation took place about 9,500 BC and brought Arawakan blowgun hunters with poisoned arrows. The second wave was incited by hosts of Athabaskan wanderers around 200 AD. Athabaskan languages belong to the Na-Dene group and they betray Sinoid roots by using reduplication, palatalisation and tonal accents. Their Old World predecessors were Sinids, Ainus and Chukchees. They had to get accustomed to cold boreal climate and so lived in subterranean semidugouts called zemlyankas. Other cultural markers included saunas, sweathouses, mushrooming, poisoning alchemy and high rates of the blood group A.

   Pueblids. The first civilisations of Amerindian plant-gatherers and preagriculturalists were imported by Brazilian Amazonids. After their acculturation in the tropical rainforests of South America they were followed by the advent of Anasazi Basket-Makers called Puebloans. They owe their names to the Spanish catch-phrase pueblos, ‘people, folks’. Their hosts made for New Mexico and created village settlements of large communities with preagriculturalist inclinations. Their architecture excelled in constructing multi-roomed labyrinths without outer windows because they vegetated in constant fear of inimical intruders. Their earthen clay houses had entrance doors on the roof and were accessed on ladders or notched logs. Over night these implements were removed out of reach of trespassers. Their clansmen lived in endogamous two-moiety systems with matrilineal inheritance and matrilocal marriage. The centre-point of their social life lay in the subterranean hall called kiva. Communal religious rituals focused on dancing adoring the Corn Maiden and supernatural spirits referred to as kachinas. Most authors presupposed that they lived on catching rabbits and small mammals but their subsistence must have been based on gathering vegetal food such as wild maize and squash. They led a sedentary life and from 1500 BC they took to their growing and purposeful agricultural cultivation. 

   Elamitoid Basket-Makers. The Puebloan social, communal, religious, ritual and economic life rendered an accomplished copy of cultural manners common to Elamitoid Caucasoids in South Asia. It worshipped martyrs, deities of vegetation and the Corn Maiden as the symbol of love goddess similar to Egyptian Isis or Mesopotamian goddesses Inanna and Ishtar. Their economic mode is known as Picosa culture and Oshara tradition and concentrated on desert oases living on dry farming and ingenious irrigation. They did not produce pottery because they made do with basket-making from herbal materials. The main distinguishing mark from their Algonquian foes, who made wigwam tents and clothing out of leather and hides, was textile material used for weaving bodywear, footwear and headwear. There existed also definite language analogies peculiar to b-languages with the Caucasian word-order, animate-inanimate gender and b-plurals. Current accounts rely on their periodisation in five stages of the scale Basket-Makers I-V. Its author was Alfred V. Kidder1, who dated the starting point to 8000 – 1500 BC. The earliest prototypes of their houses were subterranean pit-houses common in colder regions of the Far East, the Amur River basin and northeast Siberia.

   The extent of Puebloan sites is today reduced only to tribes of the Oasis America tradition such as Zuñi, Hopi, Tiwa and Keresan tribes but originally the pithouse settlements were united with the Mayan territories in Central and North Mexico. These tribes discovered the secrets of tilling fields as early as 3500 BC and initiated their propagation to Mexico and Arizona. Its cultural centres lay in Mesa Verde in the north, the Ancestral Pueblo in New Mexico, the Hohokam complex in Arizona and Mogollon tradition in the Chihuahua province of Mexico. The genuine and pure Puebloans included only matrilineal societies with matrilocal marriage, who confessed chthonic mythology deriving the world creation from underground divinities. The northern tribes of Mesa Verde were also Puebloans but their architecture was incorporated in the alien civilisations of militant cliff-dwellers, who sought protection in rock-cut caves and rock overhangs. These Pueblans formed only an Elamitoid matriarchal lower-class substratum subdued to the patriarchal rule of the upper caste of the Ugro-Turcoid superstratum. Another alien element was incorporated in the Tanoan family of tribes (Kiowa, Jemez, Towa, Tiwa, Tewa). The first author, who noticed their cultural distinctions from pure Puebloans with dry farming maize-growing economy was Fred Russell Eggan2. He was aware of their association with Uto-Aztecans representing the racial stock of Tungids. They differed from Puebloans by patrilineal kinship, dualist cosmogony, purification rituals and cosmogonic accounts of the underwater origins of the terrestrial world.

   Ugro-Scythoid Algonquinds. The genuine Ugrids arrived in the Americas as late as with the Folsom Complex dating to 9000 BC. They were the first bison-hunters anticipating the Algonquian nomadic life-style inherited by tribes in the Great Plains. Algonquians adopted nomadism in portable wigwam-tents and continued their exploring expeditions as far as Tierra del Fuego. Their twins were people of the Chinchorro culture (9,000 to 3,500 years BP), who were remarkable for the burial practices of mummification. The younger generations of their settlers passed from chasing animal trophies to pastoralism and from herding mammals to herding humans as slave-holders. They were not lordly supermen and Kulturträger but nomadic barbarians, who sponged on the cultural flourish of the southern agricultural civilisations of the Anasazi Basket-Makers.

   Andids. Renato Biasutti determined a special racial family of Pueblo-Andidi composed from Pueblids (New Mexico) and Andids inhabiting the Andean mountains. In both civilisations they formed only the ruling military caste and upper-class superstratum with sovereigns commemorated by megalithic monuments. Puebloan maize-cultivators served them as a lower caste of plebeians, serfs or slaves. Their original ancestors were Algonquian buffalo-hunters of Folsom provenience, who competed with Clovis colonists and joined their hybrid alliances. They roamed as wild nomadic aborigines living in portable wigwam tents, and so they cannot be celebrated as founders of American advanced civilisations. It is much more appropriate to say that they sponged on the agricultural breeding-ground of Pueblids. They invented growing maize and squash in central Mexico about 1500 BC and around 1200 BC they imported its agrotechnogical skills to their brotherly pueblo communities in New Mexico. The bloom of their welfare attracted retinues of raiding intruders, who beat their home defence and enslaved their commoners. This is how the dynasty of Olmecs installed its Mexican kingdom (1300–400 BC) and the royal house of the Chavíns rehearsed their invasion in Andean South America. Their Peruvian conquests reached the peak of despocy in 1200-400 BC. Later the Mexican Zapotecs (400 BC – 1500 AD) attempted to imitate their success in Monte Alban and Mixtla. The Nasca dynasty founded a famous coastal culture and powerful empire between 400 BC and 1000 AD. 

   Algonquian Planids. The race of Andids must include also the northern variety of Planids embodied by Algonquian buffalo-hunters. They belong to the same stock of megafauna-hunters but their southern wing reached a more advanced Neolithic stage of pastoralist herding, not to speak of the more advanced stage of military and aristocratic caste in civilised states. The data of population genetics ascribe high values of the paternal Q haplotype to Amerindian beehive-dwellers and megalith-builders: Algonquian 33.5, Muscogean 75, Cheyenne 61, Mixtec 93, Mixe–Zoque 100, Inga 78 per cent. Their chief difference is that the northern Algonquian tribes maintained the basal Y-haplotype Q-M242, whereas the civilised southern Andids developed its special subtype Q-M3.

   Appalachids. In the east of North America such restructuralisation of social forces took place from approximately 800 AD to 1600 AD. The progress of civilisation was accelerated by the advances in farming here, too. Reports of the rise of growing squash, sunflowers, goosefoot and sump weed south of the Mississippi are debatable but they may be ascribed to the Appalachians and peoples of the Caddoan language family. All we know is that unexpected economic prosperity attracted the attention of Algonquian raiders, who infiltrated their villages with longhouses by copular wigwams with a slightly conical top. The autochthonous farmers exhibited high indices of long-headed dolichocephaly and cultivated burial customs of British ‘long barrows with long skulls. This is why R. Biasutti labelled them as Pre-Europidi with conspicuous Europoid traits. Their joint activities resulted in the monuments of the Mid-Atlantic mound-building Mississippi culture.

   Amazonids. An interesting relic of Palaeo-Negrids is discovered in the Tupí-Quaraní tribes in the Amazonian river basin. The nasal indices of their nose profile attest the chamaerrhine or platyrhine morphology with values ranging between 87.0 and 91.9. Their advent from the Old World was lined with colonies of platyrhine dolichocephals, whose cranial indices were lower than 78.9. Their chain was extended from British Columbia to California, Costa Rica and Brazil. Their difference from North American populations was described as follows: “the present Native Americans tend to exhibit a cranial morphology similar to late and modern Northern Asians (short and wide neurocrania; high, orthognatic and broad faces; and relatively high and narrow orbits and noses), the earliest South Americans tend to be more similar to present Australians, Melanesians, and Sub-Saharan Africans (narrow and long neurocrania; prognatic, low faces; and relatively low and broad orbits and noses.”1

   Their linguistic determination is aided by the prenesalised phonemes ᵐb-, ⁿd-,ᵑɡ- in Jibaro-Kandoshi, Tupí and Guraní Mbaya. Their residual vestiges can be seen in the ng- [ŋ-] stop in Ngabere and the phonemes ngy [ɲ], ng [ŋ], ngw [ŋʷ] in the Third Mesa Hopi or Mishongnovi Hopi dialects of Hopi. Their hosts undoubtedly wandered from Beringia and British Columbia but perceptible colonies were left behind only in the Cocopa tribe in Mexico, Ngabere/Ngäbere in Costa Rica and Emberá in Panama. They managed to build to a new large and compact heartland only in the Brazilian population of the Guaraní-Mbya, Guarayu, Tupikin, Tupí and Tupieté.


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties, Prague 2018,

p.  52-72









































1 Egon von Eickstedt: Geschichte der anthropologischen Namengebung und Klassifikation. Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde. Band 5, 209-282, Band 6, 1937, 36-96, 151-210; Die prioritätsgerechten Bezeichnungen der menschlichen Varitäten. Historia Mundi. Band 1, Munich, 223-226.

2 Renato Biasutti: Razze e i popoli, I, p. 276, Carte 14.

3 V. P. Alexeev: The differential geography of races. In: William A. Stini: Physiological and Morphological

Adaptation and Evolution. The Hague: Mouton, De Gruyter, 1979. 

4 G. Debets: Essay on the graphical presentation of the genealogical classification of human races. In: Y. Bromley: Soviet Ethnology and Anthropology Today. Mouton & Co., 1974. 

1 Bertil Lundman: Jordens Människoraser och Folkstammar. Uppsala: Nybloms Förlag, 1943. 

2 H. V. Vallois: Las races humaines. PUF 1944; 7th ed. Grammont, 1968.

3 Albert Drexel: Die Völker der Erde.  Zürich: H. Albisser, 1947; 2nd ed., Zürich: Akademie Verlag, 1955.

4 G. Neumann: Archeology and race in the American Indian. In: J. Griffin: Archeology of Eastern United States. Chicago – London,  1952: 13-34.

1 B. Lundman: Geographische Anthropologie. Rassen und Völker der Erde. Stuttgart: G. Fischer, 1967.

2 Edward Sapir: The Na-Dene languages: A preliminary report. American Anthropologist, Vol. 17, 1915: 534-558, p. 558.

3 J. Imbelloni: Nouveaux apports à la classification de l'homme américain. Miscellanea P. Rivet octogenario dicata. Mexico, 1958. 

4 S. Canals Frau: Prehistoria de América. Editorial Sudamericana. Buenos Aires, 1950.

1 Fredrickson 1984, Martin P. R. Magne and R. G. Matson: Athapaskan Migrations. The Archaeology of Eagle Lake, British Columbia,  2007; Martin P. R. Magne and R. G. Matson: Moving On: Expanding Perspectives on Athapaskan Migration, Canadian Journal of Archaeology  Vol. 34, No. 2 (2010), pp. 212-239.

2 Edward Sapir: The Na-Dene languages: a preliminary report, American Anthropologist, 17 (3), 1915: 534–558; Merritt Ruhlen: The origin of the Na-Dene. PNAS, 95 (23), 1998: 13994–13996.