Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic fokloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*       Racial taxonomy

*       Ethnic taxonomy

*        Europe

*        Asia

*        Anatolia

*         Caucasus

*       Africa

*       Arabia

*       India

*       China

*       Indonesia

*        Indochina

*        Polynesia

*        Australia

*       North America

*       South America



*        Spain             France

*        Italy       Schweiz

*        Britain      Celts

*       Scandinavia  

*       Germany

*       Slavs     Balts      

*         Greece   Thrace

*        Anatolia



                     Racial Varieties in Italy

                         Clickable terms are red on yellow background






Ancient Italic tribes

(from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 43, p. 139)




Tribes in modern Italic toponymy (P. Bělíček: The Atlas of Systematic Anthropogy III, 2018)








































    Map 42. A racial overlay of Biasutti’s map of Italian cephalic indices

(from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 42, p. 138)





























































The Racial Grouping of Ancient Italic Tribes


Italic racial varieties have to be anchored in prehistoric evidence and coordinated with archaeological cultures. Their traces are usually sought in Neolithic pottery but many conspicuous coincidences appear also in ethnonymy and the toponomastic studies of places names. In the middle Palaeolithic Italy was occupied by the Epi-Mousterian culture of Uluzzians (49,000 BP) and their descendants may have contributed to the Dinaric revival in the Chalcolithic Bronze Age. As a part of megalithism widespread in western Europe its tendencies affected also neighbouring tribes. Megalithic towers nuraghi were concentrated in the northwest Sardinia, talayots prevailed in Menorca and Majorca, while chamber-tomb navetas and table-shaped taulas abounded in the Balearic Islands. However, the Corsican Belatoni developed a side branch of megalithism called Torrean civilisation owing to building smaller towers torri. It was focused on erecting menhirs and standing stones. It was a sort of Epi-Cardial Pelasgoid megalithism different from genuine cupola-shaped cairn constructions. The Balearic chamber-tomb navetas were represented by Naveta des Todons, i.e. boat-shaped chamber-tomb of Teutons from hewn stones. They may be classified as a type of Epi-Microlithic megalithism blending Dinaric cairns with rock-cut galleries.    `

Italic family = Hallstatt Sarmatids È Alpinids È Etruscoids È Epi-Cardial Pelasgids È Poladan lake-

   dwellers È  Messapian dolmen-builders È Abruzzian Bellbeaker Folk È Bruttian Elamitoids.

Megalith-builders in Italy (cults of Uranos and Saturn): Piceni, Vestini, Peucetii, Messapii.

Ancestors: Uluzzian culture (south central Italy, 49,000 BP), Artenacian (France, Switzerland, 2400 BC),

   the Ozieri culture or San Michele culture (north Sardinia, 3200 BC, pre-nuragic architecture), 

   Messapian or Salentinian culture (800 BC), Picenian or Umbrian culture (500 BC).      

Megalith dolmens in Italy: dolmen di Albarosa, Passage Grave in Puglia, dolmen di Frisari in Puglia.

Toponymic chain NW-SE: Veragri, Seduni, Pisaec, Pisanaec, Pisarensec, Urgoc, Saturniac, Piceni, 

Vestini, Peucetii, Messapii.

Hallstatt Sarmatids (princely burials, chariot burials, cults of Mars the wood-pecker, ver sacra raids,

   elopements of brides) = (Marsi, Marrucini) + (Sabini/Sabines, Samnites) + (Oscans/Osci, Ausones),

(Volsci, Vulci, Volsinii) + Boii.

Epi-Cardial Impresso Ware (Epi-Levalloisian residues?, Pelasgoid seaside fishermen and seafarers,  

   Sea Peoples, pottery with imprints of the cockle, a marine mollusc Cardium edulis; waterside

dwellings in conical roundhouses, menhirs, standing stones, stone alleys, Y-hg T).

Italic Pelasgoids Paeligni, Apulli, Daunii, Pelasgoid Oenotrians (Apullian roundhouse trullo,

   menhirs, standing stones).

Menhir standing stones in Puglia: Balice, Casamassima, Castelberg, Casermette, Spongano, Bagnolo.

Apullo-Daunian ethnonymic roots = Pal-/Apul- + Daun- + Lar- + Kar- + Let-.

Toponymic chain of ethnonyms N-SE: Carni, Bellunumc, Palaviumc, Tennetumc, Felsinac, Peltuinumc,

   Paeligni, Pallanumc, Caraceni, Larinumc, Daunii, Apulia/Puglia, Apulli, Blerac, Blandac, Dioscuriash,

   Crotonc, Pelorush, Phalacrumc, Apolloniac, Palicec.

Epi-Aurignacian lake-dwellers grouped as Poladans (terramare cultures of lake-dwellings, palafitti on

   piles over a lake, acorn-eaters, blood group B, Y-hg C).

Chassey-Lagozza-Cortaillod group: Lagozza culture (North Italy, 3900 BC), Polada culture (Lombardy

   2160 BC), Terramare culture (Emilia-Romagna, 1700 BC), Romagna group, Bonnanaro culture

   (Sardinia, 1900 BC), Palaffite culture (Pianura Padana).

PoladansLiguri? + Falisci + Latini.

Toponymic chain N-SE: Bilitioc, Carreac, Florentiac, Falesiac, Falerioc, Fulginiumc, Carsulaec, Faliscac,

Falisci, Blerac, Caerec, Latium, Latini, Lautulaec.

Epi-Tardenoisian Etruscoid cultures (necropoleis, rock shelters, rock-cut gallery graves, hepatomancy,

   burnished ware, blood group B, Y-hg R1b-U152 (S28)).

Etruscoid archaeology: Stentinello culture (Sicily, Calabria, c. 4800 BC), Gaudo culture (Campania

   2900 BC), Laterza/Laterza- Cellino San Marco culture (2900 BC), Remedello culture (cultura di

   Remedello, Northern Italy, cca 2700 BC), Rinaldone culture (cca 2200 BC, Lazio), Canegrate culture

   (western Lombardy, 1300 BC), Apennine culture (1500 BC, burnished ware), Ischia and Lipari group.

Etruscoid Raeti + Etrusci + Camerini + Umbrii + Hernici + Napolitani + Campani + Calabrese +

   + Sikani/Sikanoi + Siceli/Siculi (Greek Sikeloi, Egyptian Shekelesh, necropoleis of Pantaleica and

   Cassibile, tombe a formo‚ oven-shaped and beehive-shaped tombs).

Italic Alpinids = Gravettians  (33,000 BP) + Tardi-Gravettians (9,000 BC), Lusatians (1170 BC).

Tardi-Gravettian Gallids Helvetii, Salassi, Lepontii, Laevi.

Venuses: Venus of Vicofertile, Venus of Savignano, Venus of Ventimiglia, Venus of Parabita.

Colchians → before 1184 Anatolids + Trojans → after 1184 Lusatian cultures, Lusatian Urnfielders.

Lusatians (cremation burials, hut-urns, face-urns, short-sized stature, brachycephals; red caps;

   satemisation, palatalisation, melodic accent) Venionetes, Venostes, Venetians, Veneti/Heneti,

   Venetulani, Albani, populi Albanenses in Rome.

Lusatian Urnfielders in ItalyAtestine/Este culture (1000 BC, situlas) + Golasecca

   (Lombardy, 900 BC) + Villanovan (Bologna, 1100 BC: double-cone urns, hut urns, also pit graves,

well tombs) + Latial culture (Latium, 1000 BC, hut urns in deep shafts).

Italian Nordids (Gothids) and Caucasoids (Gothonids) = Linear Ware + Bell Beakers + Caucasoids.

Bellbeaker Folk in Italy Ortucchio culture (2670 BC, Bellbeaker Folk, cultura del bicchiere

   campaniforme, province of Abruzzes.

Bellbeaker Folk in Italy Friniates + Senones/Sienians (from Siena/Sena/Saenae) Praetuttii? 

Elamitoid Caucasoids in Sicily and Calabria (Sicilian multicellular flat-roofed houses, heraldry with

   the bull’s head, bull walking, Y-hg J1).

Elamitoid Caucasoids Italiotes + Bruttii/Βρέττιοι + Elimi/Elymoi + Caudini + Frentani.

Table 43. A survey of correlations between Italic races and their archaeological cultures


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 45, p. 152,  pp. 137-144.