The earliest autochthons of Baltic
countries were the Balts, who belonged to Aurignacian populations of nomadic fishers. They did not
wander right from their Pontic starting-point north
of the Black Sea but roamed in several mainstreams from
riverside areas of Siberia as bearers of the Tungusoid Y-haplogroup C. The period between 43,000 and 37,000 BP saw
their transcontinental travels in several principal directions. Classic
archaeology recognised only the Aurignacian proper
(37,000 BP) that headed for France and Spain. Beside this West-European Aurignacian new excavations confirm the existence of the
Siberian Proto-Aurignacian that departed from Lake Baikal. Less reliable records allow us to speak
also of the Indian Aurignacian that gave birth to Tulu and Telugu tribes. Some authors occasionally apply
this term also to the East-African Levalloisians
(95,000 BP), who were considered as the forefathers of Cromagnon
people or even Homo sapiens as such. The African route pointed to the
central role of the Levantine Ahmarian culture
(46,000 BP) and its young offshoot called Antelian (32,000
BP). They both played a decisive role in importing to Europe the narrow prismatic blade points and burins that
are now referred to as the Font-Yves type.
They support hypotheses assuming that Aurignacians
arrived to western Europe from the Levant via the
culture of the Bulgarian Bacho Kiro
cave (43,000 BP). Another source of Aurignacian
industry is sought in digs from the Bohunician
complex (48,000 BP). Its assemblage had a centre at Bohunice
near Brno, but
its finds radiate to East Europe and may
have reached also Baltic ancestors.
Balto-Gothids: the dominant stock of the Gotho-Frisian Corded Ware culture (2900 BC) and its Cam-
predecessors (10,000 BC); they moved eastward as Yotvingo-Prussians
and made battle-
axes and boat-axes, Baltic racial
phenotypes derived from Nordic tall dolichocephals
Slavic and Saamic
brachycephals; heathen Prussians
lived in two-caste systems like Brahmans and
Khattryias, they derived their origin from two brothers, the king Vaidevutis and the archpriest Bruteno.
Prussians → Prussians (Latin
Pruteni), Bartians, Warmians/Varmians, Yotvingians (Latvian
Jātvingi, Polish Jaćwingowie, from Goths), (Samo)gitians/Zhemaitish (from Goths), Sasnans.
Baltids (Balto-Tungids): the second dominant of Aurignacian lacustrine fishers
and lake-dwellers in the
district, artificial islands on lakes, post-dwellings and above-water lake
huts of lavvu
type, steep A-shaped houses, whose gables had tepee-like crossed
Baltai, Latvian Balti,
balt- means ‘white’ or ‘marshland’) → Karelians/Karjala,
Lithuanians/Lietuviu, Latvians, Latgalians,
Balto-Lappids: Gravettian origins, cremation burials, yodelling, melodic
tones, abundant palatals
and sibilant affricates and diphthongs, satemisation, fronting round and back vowels).
Galindians/Goliadj, Semigallians (from Saamis
+ Gallians), Samogitians
(from Saamis +
Goths), Sambians (from Sambia Peninsula = Samland,
Saami + -land), Selonians, Finns (from Wend-).
Balto-Scythids (Ugro-Scythoid tribes of tall brachycephalous
kurgan-builders, mounds of cupolar and
domed shapes, convex noses, often light
reddish skin and red hair) →
Vod’/Votes, Ingrians/Izhorians, Veps, Sudovians (from Scyth-), Węgorzewo-Mazowsze.
Balto-Uralids (the Pit-Comb
Ware culture 6000 BC, Narva culture, 5300 BC,
‘horse-eaters’, raw-meat eaters, exposition on scaffolds, cults of the World
the World Tree and the World Duck) → Estonians/Aestii/Eesti, Aukštaitians, Ross’.
55. An analytic decomposition of Baltic peoples
were known to ancient Greeks as Hyperboreans and
flowed into the riverside territories of Central Europe in several
mainstreams (Table 55). The Karelian, Ladogan and Polochan
lake-dwellers arrived along a northwest route but their Polish and Ukrainian
brothers pursued a westward direction. Their architecture preserved elements
of the ancient Tungusoid tepee style in ‘steep
Finish roof’, A-shaped building and gables crowned by the wreath of crossed
logs at the top.
dominant ethnic layer among Baltids was formed by Yotvingo-Prussians, who came to the Baltic area as
bearers of the Corded Ware culture. Their travels traced earlier routes that
lined the Mesolithic wanderings of Littoralids to
the Urals and Siberia.
They had a clear Europoid stamp and transported
cord-patterned pottery to littoral sites in the Far
East. They spread Campignian
kitchen shell middens as far as the Japanese Jomon culture. The study of Prussian linguistic evidence
is of great import since it conserved the state of Germanic consonantism before the circular Great Sound Shift (große Lautverschiebung).
At that time Gotho-Frisians did not use the latter
correlation of fortis and lenis stops but applied
the opposition of voiced and surd stops as is common in most IE tongues.
The cultural dominance of the
Indo-European Gotho-Frisians could not menace the
chronological priority of Gravettian immigrants,
who contributed the most populous layer of the Slavic and Lappic
substratum. Its impact was seen in satem shifts,
consonant palatalisation, nasal vowels, rich
diphthongisation, i-plurals and melodic
pitch accent. On the other hand, Uralic languages penetrated into the Baltic
morphology by incorporating Estonian perfect tenses and locative cases. Their
declinations included Uralic cases distinguishing essives,
adessives, allative, illatives and comitatives.
Slavonic Polonids and Baltids
Poles are classed as a Slavic nation but
their name derives from Bulgaroid Polonids. Their ancestors were the Ukrainian Polovtsy/Plavtsy, who are erroneously
classified as Turcoids, because they fused with the
surrounding Turcoid element. They differed from Turcoid neighbours by their Tungusoid
descent from Aurignacian tribes with tepee tents
and conical post-dwellings. Their core resided north of the Black Sea all over the
settlements of the Yamnaya culture (3300 BC). It was
identical to the racial variety of Pontids or Eastern Mediterranids. About 42,000 BP the Aurignacian diaspora dispersed Tungids from Asia and drove them
from East Europe farther to the Alps and the Iberian
Peninsula. Their East European hordes survived in the ethnoracial groups of Volga Bulgars,
Ladogans, Baltids, Karelians and Polish Polonids.
Owing to long-term assimilation their linguistic heritage is now preserved
only in depleted remains.
Euro-Tungids (also called Ladogans,
Baltids, Karelians, Hyperboreans; nomadic fishermen, lacustrine
lake-dwellers, pole-dwellings, tepee huts, Finnish steep-sloping chalets with
tepee-like gables, Lappish huts laevu
and goahti, lakeside fishermen,
acorn-eaters, ABO group B, low frequencies of Y-hg C):
North route 1:
Karelian Tungids: Karelians (Karjalabotn, Kirjaland),
Latvian Tungids: Baldayskaya
Range ® Baltinava ® Latgalians ®
Polochan Tungids: Polochans, Poloczanians (at Polotsk,
Belarusia) ® Lithuanians ® Belostok ® Polans (also Polanes, Polanians, Polish Polanie
in the Warta
river basin) ® Płońsk-Bielsk ® Poel ® Flensburg ® Danes (Dani)
W2 Polonian Tungids: Volga Bulgars ® Polovtsi (Polish Połowcy, Plauci) ® Polans (Opolans),
W3 Euro-Tungids: Plone ® Belesane ® Ostfalen (Ostfalia) ® Westfalen ® Belgium (Belgica, Belginum) ® Bellovaci ® Flemish Flanders (Flandria)
® Belgae (south England).
W4 Euro-Tungids: Balti (Romania) ® Ipoly, Pilis, Ipel’ (Hungary, Slovakia) ® Pálava (Moravia) ® Tuenagove ® Blesigove ® Pfalz (Germany),
NW Pelasgids: Pelasgians (Pelasgiotes) ® Belegezites (Thessaly) ® Illyri (Illyrioi, Illyrii) ®
Dalmatians ® Carantanians (Slovenes
in Austria and Slovenia)
56. A systematic reclassification of eastern Mediterranids as pure Eteo-Tungids
Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic
Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Table 46, p. 156-163