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                    Tribes of Scandinavia and Finland

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The Racial Varieties of Scandinavia


  The anthropological situation in Scandinavian countries can be described best by maps surveying the distribution of anthropometric cranial and ostial indices. Classical theories could do with distinguishing only Nordids, Lappids and Baltids. Biasutti’s racial survey of Scandinavia included only Nordidi, Lappidi, Baltidi and Uralidi.1 Egon von Eickstedt saw two main Scandinavian subtypes, the light-skinned helle Nordrassen and mitteleuroasiatische Kurzköpfe ‘Central Euroasiatic short skulls’. The former included nordische Rasse in the west and ostbaltische Rasse in the east. Their leading element was represented by the western Goths and Frisians, who had double-gangers in the eastern Yotwingians and Prussians in the Baltic area. The latter group consisted from the ostische Rasse of Uralids and the lappische Rasse of Sami people. Later he reclassified their opposition as contrast between the short alpine Rasse and the tall ectomorph osteuropide Rasse.  


Map 20. Racial varieties of Scandinavia

   Coon’s drawing on Map 19 and our draft on Map 20 identify the genuine Germanics with the racial minorities of Tronde people inhabiting the provinces of Trøndelag, Hardanger and Hordaland. Beside Trøndelag on the western coasts of Norway, they trace the Tronde phenotype also in Scotland and Iceland. In our view the Tronde district in Norway neighbours on a colony of Orkdal Scandids and their populations need a neat disambiguation into Germanoids and Scandids. The purple cross mark indicates the Tydal tall pigmented type with short legs, long arms and short wide snubbed nose. It looks like Ripley’s Palaeo-Negroid ‘old black breed’.

   Scandids. In the northern Germanic countries the shortsized brachycephalous Lappids competed with tall brachycephalous phenotypes, who may be denoted as Scanians or Scandids. Before Carleton S. Coon published The Races of Europe, his predecessors evaluated all Scandinavians as tall, white-skinned and fair-haired Nordids. The racial variety of Nordids was neglected as a negligible mutation of Nordic types without paying heed to its peculiarities. Its specific traits consisted in the large-headed brachycephalic cranium and convex leptorrhine nose accompanied often by red hair and pinky or reddish colour of skin. Coon split their groups into the neat subdivisions of Borreby, Trønder, Orkdal, Hardanger, Brünn and Dalo-Falid types and realised that such an uneven dispersion of principal traits and seats indicated archaic origins from earlier colonisations. Their distribution is traced on Map 21.







Scandids: Scandinavian, Scania, Scandza, Varangians

Scythoid ethnonymic associations: Scand/Skyth/Chud’, Varang/Ingr/Ugr-, Bask/Mas-, Mat/Med-  

Dialectal markers: category of determination, postpositive articles, opposition of definite and indefinite determiners, plurals  in -en transformed into n-stems

Gothoids (long-barrow inhumators, c. 9,000 BC): Jutland, Kattegat, Agdir, Jaeder, Gottia, Götaland,

Gautigoth, Ostrogothae, Vaster Gotaland, Adogit, Gotland/Gottia, Vagoth, Hadeland, Otingis

Gothoid ethnonymic associations: Goth/Jut-, Fris-, Lang/Angl-, Sas/Sax/Sen-

Dialectal markers: correlation of voiced and surd consonants, voiced sonants, gender opposition of

animate and inanimate nouns, rich inventory of lax non-tense long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs

Swabians (c. 100 AD): Swedes, Suetia, Suiones, Suehans

Rugians (c. 100 AD): Rugi, Ringerike, Rogaland, Ragnarici

Cimbroids (microlith tribes): Hordaland, Herules, Herdal, Trøndelag, Jamtland (< Finnish Hämme)

Cimbroid ethnonymic association: Her/Herm-, Teuton/Titan-, Thor/Tur-, Hun/Kymr/Cimbr-, Kas/Hes-

Dialectal markers: correlation of fortis and lenis pulmonic plosives, cacuminal/apical retroflex consonants /ɖ ɳ ʈ ɭ/, their decomposition into r-affricates /dr tr/ and dephonologisation into clusters dr, tr, lambdacist shifts of d, t, n and l into r-sounds, geminating lenis plosives, reduced unstressed syllables with lax vowels, front rounded vowels, umlaut vowel synharmony, plurals  in -er, SOV and GenN word order, analytic constructions with participles  and gerunds

Danes: ethnonymic associations Pol/Phal/Flem-, Dan/Daun/Ting-, Del/Dal-, Lat/Let-

Epi-Aurignacian blade cultures: Danes, Lolland, Falster, Blekinge, Telemark, Fjell, Dalarna

Dialectal markers: laminal retroflex consonants /ɖ ɳ ʈ ɭ/, their decomposition into l-affricates /dl tl nl rl/ and dephonologisation into clusters dl, tl, lambdacist shifts of d, t, n and r into l-sounds, geminating lenis plosives, reduced unstressed syllables with lax vowels

Æsir, Asen: the ethnonymic association Mar/Nor/Nar-, Os/Ias-, Sarm/Ser-, Aors/Rus-, Walch/Volc-  

Halstattian Sarmatids: Ascomanni, Nerike, Romerike, Raumarici, More, Norbegia, Norrland, Inari

Alpinids: the ethnonymic association of Alfar and Vanír1: Vend/Fin-, Hal/Gal-, Alb/Lab/Lapp-

Lappids: Hallin, Halland, Helsingland, Ventheland, Halogaland, (Screre)fennae, Finlappelandth, Kalixmål

Dialectal markers: a rich invertory of patatal consonants /pi ti ki ni li/, post-alveolar sibilants and post-alveolar sibilant affricates, fronting back rounded vowels by shifts /u/ > /y/, /o/ > /ɜ/, nasal vowels, rich diphthongisation, tonal pitch accent, hydronym place names in -a, unreduced singular and plural endings in -a, vocalic plurals in -e, -i, opposition of masculine o-stems and feminine a-stems

Table 33. The multiethnic composition of Scandinavian Germanics



Extracts from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, 2018,  pp. 87-105



















































1 Renato Biasutti: Le razze e i popoli della terra, vol. 1, Torino 1941, p. 575.

1 Georges Dumézil: The gods: Aesir and Vanir. in: Gods of the Ancient Northmen. ed. Einar Haugen. Publications of the UCLA Center for the Study of Comparative Folklore and Mythology 3. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973, pp. 3-25.