Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

  Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*     Language taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europic

*     Nordic

*     Indic

*     Littoralic

*     Caucasic

*     Elamitic

*     Negric

*     Melanic

*     Tungic

*     Pelasgic

*     Cimbric

*     Turanic 

*     Ugro-Scythic

*     Uralo-Sarmatic

*     Lappic

*     Sinic



*       Spain    France

*       Italy     Schweiz

*       Britain    Celts

*       Scandinavia

*       Germany

*       Balts   Slavs

*       Greece

*       Thrace     Dacia

*       Anatolia



The Racial and Linguistic Groups of Negrids, Bantuids, Melanids and Amazonides

 Clickable terms are red on the yellow background



Table 1. The Systematic Glottogenesis of Human Language Families



Map 1. The Migration Routes of Bantu Negrids to Papua, Melanesia and Amazonia


The Oldowan Colonisation 


   Traditional anthropology operates with theoretical models of the triumphal spread of Homo sapiens and his out-of-Africa propagation.1 It is based on a pliable all-explaining construction that unfortunately lacks unequivocal support in archaeological evidence. Its argumentation buries Homo erectus as an extinct species and replaces his reign by a gracile successor inhabiting lakeside districts of the East African Depression. These territories were formerly occupied by his rival Homo rudolfensis indulging in waterside ecosystems. His life-style was probably inherited by the race of East African Kafrids producing Levalloisian flake-tools. About 500,000 and 125,000 BP they set out on several migrations heading for Palestine along the Great Jordan Rift and from here they continued to Europe and India.

   There exists a grave suspicion that their gentle traits misled anthropologists into considering them as the sole forefathers of all human races. They did not realise that Africa had been a hatchery of several heterogeneous races that played an equally important role in human anthropogenesis. Wolpoff’s multiregional evolution hypothesis pointed out that advances of sapientisation may have proceeded in different racial and cultural centres at faster or slower pace. They afflicted also Oldowan colonists whose expansion (1.8 mill. years ago) headed from Africa for Southeast Asia. Their pebble-stone chopping-tool industry did not perish but survived in modern populations. Their torch-bringers split into local Georgian, Indian, Melanesian and Australian traditions and cultivated its heritage up to the Eneolithic period.

   Classic comparative linguistics presupposes more conservative dating, the founder of Bantu philological studies Harry H. Johnston advanced much later estimates of Bantu origins. He presupposed that obvious analogies between African Bantu tongues and Australian Aboriginal had been due to contacts dated to a few centuries AD.2 Anthropologists attempted to solve this crux by searching for the earliest African digs and fossils. For a long time they recognised the earliest ancestor of black Bantu people in the African fossils of Asselar man. His remains were found near Khartoum and their age was fixed to around 6,400 BP. Recently there have appeared earlier skeletal remains in West and Central Africa. The anthropological types of their fossil bones were classified as Ishango man (8,000 BP) and Iwo Eleru man (11,000 BP).

   The issue of common ancestry linking African, Melanesian and Australian black people into one anthropological group is still open to dispute. The prevailing opinion regards their racial groups as independent outgrowths of Homo sapiens that developed on different continents by adapting to similar tropical climate. Our opinion proclaims that they represent the progeny of the earliest Oldowan colonists. The chief objections to the concept of Palaeo-Negrid unity emphasise great differences in hair. The hair of Melanesians is wavy or straight owing to contacts with neighbouring Polynesians. The hair of Australids is as wavy, silky and kinky as that of Veddoids. The original racial archetype is preserved only in African Negrids, whose hair is woolly, frizzly and curly. Racial differences among black melanodermic and ulotrichous types are mostly due to secondary influences but they also disclose common archaic traits receding in African archetypes. For instance, Australids differ from African Negrids by higher occurrence of the so-called sagittal keel’. Originally, it was typical of Homo erectus as a survival of crista sagittalis in Paranthropus boisei. Other archaic features of Australids include also greater prognathism and large heavy jaws betraying vegetal subsistence. Such findings do not contradict common origin but confirm the original unity by preserving the more archaic status. They prove that the original lineage of robust herbivores may have survived better in remote isolates.

    The progeny of Homo erectus and Oldowan wanderers appeared also in Amazonian peasants pertaining to the Tupí-Guraní language family. Their burial customs prescribe excarnations of the dead grandfathers’ skulls and skeletons. Formerly, their tribes practiced ritual cannibalistic endophagy, their survivors originally ate their flesh and drank their blood in hope they would take over their magic spiritual powers. Their recent progeny replaced these barbarous ceremonies by consuming them in burnt ashes baked in cakes or blended in drinks. The Bantu tribe Geshu boil their dead by night, cut off pieces of the flesh, divide them among women and leave the rest to the jackals.1 This happens also in the Carpentaria Gulf in Australia. The bones are buried in the ground while the flesh is eaten. Megasthenes described the customs of the Veddahs, who ate the whole of the dead corpse.2 The Panoan tribes Tapajó and Juru drank only the powder of their burnt ashes mixed with water.3

   The Amazonian connection of Palaeo-Negrids is scented also by geneticists.4 An important observation was made by Christy Turners,5 who studied dolichocephalous crania of Amazonian tribes in South America and suggested that they may have spread by a colonisation of Australoids from Southeast Asia. This opinion was confirmed also by enquiries into the DNA haplogroups of Australoid populations6, which bore striking resemblance to patterns found in the Aleutian Islands and Amazonian Indians. Their coincidences were demonstrated also by authors who found that Suruí, Paíter, Karitiana, and Xavante tribes from the Tupí-Guaraní language family display DNA patterns common to populations of Australia and New Guinea.7

    The undoubtable existence of prehistoric Palaeo-Negritic unity pulls down all the walls of traditional prehistoric studies. The American linguist Johanna Nichols applied statistical methods to prove that vocal languages started diversifying in human species at least 100,000 years ago.8 Comparisons of Bantu, Australian, Melanesian and Amazonian languages bring evidence of many structural analogies. They show that it is difficult to find common lexical roots in their word stock, but there exist conspicuous parallels in categories of phonology and grammar. These languages include initial prenasalised stops mb-, nd-, ng-, apply systems of nominal classifiers, use the SVO word order and prefer that-clauses to participial and gerundial constructions. Surprisingly enough, such traits link them also with the Godoberi and Khwarshi group of Caucasian languages. Their parallel resemblances suggest that human glottogenesis started as early as two million years ago. It did not proceed by means of purposeless avalanches of sound shifts but preserved the language character inherited from ancestors.

   There exist grave reasons for acknowledging four principal palaeo-races that stood at the cradle of humankind and arose by adapting to the basic ecotypes in Africa:

(i)     the herbivorous plant-gatherer Homo erectus remarkable for the Oldowan culture (Y-hg E), who may have become the progenitor of the equatorial race of Negrids,

(ii)   the carnivorous hunter Laetoli man noted for volcano burials and the beehive-dwelling culture of Eickstedt’s Khoids with the haplotype Y-hg B,

(iii) the piscivorous fisher Homo rudolfensis with the Y-hg B, who developed the Levalloisian culture (500,000 BP) and gave birth to the race of lake-dwelling Kafrids in the East African Depression,

(iv) the omnivorous and insectivorous race of Eickstedt’s Sanids affiliated with the Negrillo and Lappids.

These lineages ascertain the genetic continuity of certain ecotypes and modes of subsistence between hominids, hominins and human races. They may have been responsible for the origin of several survivors differentiated into robust plant-eaters (Negrids), dwarfish omnivores and insectivores (Sanids), lacustrine fish-eaters (Tungusoid Kafrids and the carnivorous hunters (Coon’s Capoid race, Biasutti’s Steatopygids9, Eickstedt’s Khoids).




The Analytic Decomposition of Cordal Axe-Tool Languages


   It is erroneous to identify the birth of Indo-European with Old Indian and imagine its glottogenesis as a series of sound shifts transforming Vedic Sanskrit phonemes. Jacob Grimms laws overestimated Sanskrit as direct evidence of the early state of Indo-European and traced its development as a westward move from North India. They did not realise that Sanskrit scripts exhibited a composite language standard, where local South Asian tongues played as decisive a role as the Indo-European subcomponent. Table 10 describes the composition of Old Indian as a multiethnic structure made up from several lexical substrata. In its layout the IE Gothoid layer struggled for prevalence with heterogeneous Dravidian traditions. Borrowing foreign loanwords often implied importing also new inorganic phonemes.




Old Indian



Indo-Negritic  mb- nd- ŋg-             

Negritisms: amb- and- ang-



Gothoid voiced  b- d- g-

Gothoid Sinisms: bh- dh- gh- nh-

bh- dh- gh- nh-                          Sinic

Scythic ejectives p’ t’ k’

Scythoid clusters: sp- st- sk- sn- sl- sr-

hp- ht- hk- hn- hl- hr-               Scythic

Scythised cacuminals

cacuminal clusters: spr- str- skr-  zdr-

tr-  dr-            Turanic cacuminals      

cythised laminals

laminal clusters: spl- stl- skl- sn- sm- sl- 

tl- dl-             Tungusoid laminals      

Scythic implosives ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ɠ̊

Scythoid surd plosives: b d g





Sanoid clicks and s-affricates: c z ʃ ʒ

tc- dc-                              Sanism



Lappisms: by- dy- gy- ny-  py- ty- ky-

by- dy- gy- ny-  py- ty- ky-  Lappic



Tungisms: tl- dl-, ʈ- ɖ-,  ṭ- ḍ- ṇ- ṣ- ẓ- ḷ- ɾ̣- ɹ̣-

ʈ- ɖ- ɳ- ʂ- ʐ- ɻ-    Dravido-Tungic



Turanisms: tr-  dr-, ʈ- ɖ-,  ṭ- ḍ- ṇ- ṣ- ẓ- ḷ- ɾ̣- ɹ̣-

ʈ- ɖ- ɳ- ʂ- ʐ- ɻ-    Dravido-Turanic

Table 10. Conservative embeddings and regressive intrusions in Old Indian consonantism

   The first autochthons in India were Negrids, whose word stock with prenasalised stops was absorbed into Sanskrit by adding the prothetic vowel a-. As a result, the initial phonemes /mb- nd- ŋg-/ were encapsulated into its norm as amb-, and- and ang-. After the arrival of black-skinned Negrids of Oldowan origin there appeared a colonisation of Acheulean hand-axe cultures (800,000 BP) that discarded prenasalisation and replaced the prefixing ba-plurals of human beings with suffixal b-plurals as in Dravidian Gadaba and Gutob and in North Indian Punjab. In dialects of Central Asian they accompanied the ethnonyms of Caspii and Lullubei. 

   The first Indo-European newcomers were Campignian Littoralists (10,000 BC) with cordmarked pottery, who colonized the Vindhya Range in Gujarat. They were not populous enough to Europeanise the entire Indian subcontinent but they disposed of an advanced educated religious tradition that enabled their Brahman descendants to get hold of an enviable scriptural monopoly. They managed to reinforce it as an official administrative standard used in religious rites. Their integration involved embedding the Brahmanic Proto-Gothic voiced plosives b, d, g into the local phonological framework with murmured breathed stops bh-, dh-, gh-. Their heritage may be ascribed to Acheuloid racial groups with Y-haplogroups G and H, whose occurrence culminates in the Indian subcontinent.  

   The Dravidian element in Old Indian was represented by retroflex consonants written as , , , , , , ɾ̣,  ɹ̣ but the IPA standard records them as /ʈ, ɖ , ɳ, ʂ, ʐ, ɭ, ɻ, ɽ/. They were notable for pronunciation with the tip of the tongue bent backwards in a concave or curled shape. Their use was obliterated in most language families but their remains often survive in the affricates tr- dr-, tl- and dl-. Most types of notation do not distinguish their apical and laminal pronunciation. The laminal retroflex consonants were characteristic of Tungusoid fishermen, who disseminated them in Eurasia with Aurignacian colonisations around 40,000 BP. The apical or cacuminal retroflex consonants must have been imported by Turcoid cultures with microlithic flake-tools around 11,000 BC.

   One of typical Indo-European consonantal clusters is seen in clusters combining sibilants with plosives and sonants. Their majority was formed by the concatenations sp-, st-, sk with presibilised surd plosives and the groups sn-, sl-, sr- formed by presibilised surd sonants. The fact that they were derived from surd sonants betrays their non-Indo-European origin because the native IE sonants were voiced. The residues of presibilised clusters appeared also in Georgian and Caucasian languages, which suggested a false impression of their close genetic affinity. In fact, they arose as an Europeanisation of Altaic roots with fortis and glottalic stops. Their original fortis pronunciation was perceived as monophonematic aspirated stops ph- and hp- or a pair of two phonemes ph- or hp-. A similar process of deaspiration took place in Czech chvíle while’ derived from Old High German hwila and New German Weile. Such assibilation was common especially in assimilating the glottalic ejectives of Scythoid kurgan-builders and Khoisan herders with copular beehive dwellings and leaf-shaped lance-heads. The South African Khoekhoe tribes belonged to the group of pastoralists such as the Maasai, Musgu, Berber Imazhigen and Iberian Basques, whose ethnonyms resonate also in the place names Swaziland and Swahili. Their languages displayed frequent vacillation b ~ m ~ w seen for instance in the names of ancient fraternal Bessoi ~ Mysoi. Tribal groups of Swazi and Swahili warriors originally bore ethnonyms hWazi- and hWahili that later underwent assibilation. At last their decomposition led to presibilated clusters /sp-, st-, sk-, sn-, sm-, sl-, sr-/.

   Altaic intrusions into Indo-European encompassed also retroflex plosives that are usually transcribed in India as /ṭ, ḍ, ṇ, ṣ, ẓ, ḷ, ɾ̣, ɹ/̣ but in the IPA notation they are rendered as  /ʈ, ɖ , ɳ, ʂ, ʐ, ɭ, ɻ, ɽ/. These sounds come from Turcoid and Tungusoid languages and often underwent dephonologisation into r-affricates or l-affricates. Such assimilative decomposition led to r-affricative biphonemes /pr, tr, dr, kr, mr, nr/, or l-affricates /pl, tl, dl, kl, ml, nl/. The final stage of dephonologisation turned fortis voiceless consonants sounds into presibilated consonantal clusters. Fortis retroflexed cacuminals were decomposed into cacuminal clusters /spr- str- skr-/, while fortis retroflexed laminals degenerated into laminal clusters /spl- stl- skl/.

   Almost all reconstructions of Indo-European count with a special series of palatals /*k', *g', *g'ʰ/ transcribed also as /*ky, *gy*, gyʰ/. Indian palatal phonemes have to be classified as an import of the short-sized Negritos, Alpinids and Lappids, who detested velar and guttural consonants and removed them by satemisation. The first wave of Negritos arrived in India about 62,000 BP, the last invasion of their Annamite brothers came along with cremating urn-fielders of the Cemetery H culture (1800 BC).

   The Scythoid element was present in India owing to the Sindhi megalith-builders and their archaic predecessors from the Munda family. Judging by the Abkhaz kurgan-builders their tribes indulged in labiovelars embedded into IE reconstructions as /*kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ/. Interrogative pronouns with labiovelars belonged to the earliest core of Indo-European. It was composed from interrogative pronouns formed from the root *kwo- or *kwi. One of their possible sources may have been Q-Celtic with labiovelars in kw- and gw-. Their occurrence was most frequent in the Romance, Italic and Gallic families and drifted with Gravettian colonists from the Horn of Africa.




The Palaeo-Negric,  Palaeo-Hmongic, Palaeo-Melanese and Palaeo-Amazonian Phonology


  There were several principal turnabouts in the tongues of robust dolichocephalous axe-tool makers. They were all herbivorous plant-gatherers and seed-eaters, who dug up their crops with pebble-stone-choppers and hand-axes. Their eastern migrations headed for the Levant, Saudi Arabia, Mesopotamia, India, Burma and South China. In Burma they concentrated into the Hmong-Mien family and Lolo-Burmese languages, in South China they founded a plantation of the Miao-Yao ethnic stock. Later their southeast stream expanded to Sumatra, Indonesia, Papua and Melanesia. Their northern stream stagnated a long time in the Far East until about 31,000 BP when it reached the coasts of the New World via the Bering Strait. Later on its people colonised its fertile alluvial valley as the Californian Margids, Central American Isthmids and South American Amazonids. Their affiliate clansmen were found among Suruí, Paíter, Karitiana, and Xavante tribes that resemble a lot to the Tupí-Guaraní languages.

    The original speech patterns of the black Negrids and Melanids were preserved best in Bantu languages.  When the ancient Oldowans moved to Aden and arid deserts of Saudi Arabia, they assimilated to the local Tabunian populations. The latter may be identified as brachycephalous Neanderthalers with lighter skin and narrow aquiline noses. Their clash resulted in the rise of the Acheulean race with mixed features. Their common outgrowth  looked like tall long-headed brown-skinned Caucasoids with relatively narrow straight noses. The Bantu system of prefixing classifiers collapsed, turned to suffixing structures and reduced to the category of gender with the opposition animate and inanimate nouns to the pair of animates and inanimates. The word stock of black people was fluently integrated into Acheulean languages by changing the prenasalised consonants mb- nd- ŋg- to words with initial clusters amb-, and-, ang-. The next problem concerned  the clash between the Bantu SVO word order and Scythoid OVS order. Their compromise gave rise to the change of Bantu plural prefixes in ba-suffixes ending in the plural suffixes -ba/-bi/-pi as in Gababa, Lullabi or Caspii.

   In Central Anatolia the Acheulean culture survived for a long time as a part of the Acheulo-Yabrudian complex. Its area was occupied by strong  populations of Ural-Altaic neighbours with the word order SOV. Their mutual contacts created the Micoquien techno-complex (about 130,000 to 60,000 BC) with mixed Altaic, Caucasoid and Elamitoid traits. Their structures transformed the Asiatic absolutive-ergative construction absN + V + ergN with b-absolutives and s-ergatives into the Altaic nominative-accusative constructions. The old Bantu prefixing ba-plurals changed into Acheulean and Caucasian suffixing b-absolutives and after a long time they transformed into the Indo-European plural b-datives. On the other hand, Caucasian s-ergatives switched into the Indo-European s-nominatives. Its was a change from the pattern absN + V + ergN to the Europoid nomN + V + accN structures.

   The problem of Acheulean, Caucasian and Indo-European continuity is solved by focusing on avalanches of ephemeral sound shifts instead of considering genetic stability and structural typology. The white Europoid race is an outgrowth of macrolithic hand-axe populations of tall dolichocephals with vegetal subsistence and (pre)agricultural dispositions, and its development competed with the Altaic races with flake-tool cultures. These cultural traditions did not differentiate by unilinear monogenesis from a common prehistoric unity but pursued independent growth by paragenesis in several interfertile and interbreedable racial lineages. Their archetypal differences were manifested by absolutely incompatible phonologies and grammatical systems. African Negrids, Asiatic Caucasoids and European Nordids applied cordal languages, whose consonantism was based on the vibration of vocal cords and the opposition of voiced and surd phonemes (Table 5). They pronounced vocalic cordal phonemes based on open syllables and phonemes produced by airstream passing through vibrating vocal cords. If there were any structural changes, they were caused by mixing with Altaic agglutinating systems.


Negritic cordal phonology

Negrids, Melanids, Anazonids

Acheulean cordal phonology

Caucasoids, Elamitoids, Gothonids

Indo-European cordal phonology


short vowels: i e a o u

short vowels: i a u

Short vowels: i a u

weak evidence of long vowels

and diphthongs

long vowels: ī ā ū

diphthongs: ai au

long vowels: ī ā ū

diphthongs: ai au

no long diphthong or triphthong

long diphthongs: āi āu

long diphthongs: āi āu

Prenasalised stops

prenasalisation disappeared

prenasalisation disappeared

voiced prenasals: mb- nd- ŋg- 

voiced plosives: b d g

voiced plosives: b d g


voiced plosives: b d g

voiced fricatives: v z h

surd prenasals: mp- nt- ŋk-

surd plosives: p t k

no consonant clusters

surd plosives: p t k

surd fricatives: f s χ

surd plosives: p t k

surd fricatives: f s χ

initial clusters: spr- str- skr- str-

voiced sonants:  j w l r

voiced sonants:  j w l r

voiced sonants:  j w l r

voiced nasals: m n ŋ

voiced nasals: m n

voiced nasals: m n

voiced trill r

voiced vibrant/trill: r

voiced vibrant/trill: r

Table 5.  The cordal phonology of dolichocephals with macrolithic hand-axe industry


The Situation of Indo-European among Grammatical Systems

  Classical historical grammar fulminated thousands of sound shifts but brought few testimonies of similar radical changes in grammar, accidence and syntax. Phonological repertories tend to exhibit radical innovations but they remain unparalleled in other linguistic aspects. In cultural evolution most grammatical categories remain relatively untouched and adopt mutations only in suffixal morphemes. This discrepancy is removed if linguistic analysis focuses on spoken dialects instead of the official written standard of national languages. This is another good reason for promoting linguistic typological studies that do not restrict their focus to describing individual language structures but build bridges between tongues with similar types of traits.    


Gender-oriented morphology

Negrids with nominal classifiers

Gender-oriented morphology


Sex-based gender categories


prefixing morphology

suffixing morphology

inflective morphology

noun classes/classifiers

prefixing formation

gender: animate/human inanimate

gender class: vegetal arboreal

nominal categories

suffixing gender formation:

animate/human inanimate


nominal categories

suffixing gender formation:

animate/human inanimate


number: singular mu- mo- li- e-

plural prefixes: ba- bi- mi- ma-

number: singular plural


number: singular plural dual


cases: no cases

cases: absolutive oblique

cases: nominative accusative

voiced prenasals: mb- nd- ŋg- 

voiced plosives: b d g

voiced plosives: b d g


voiced plosives: b d g

voiced fricatives: v z h

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: NA

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NNum

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: AN (NA)

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NumN

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: AN (NA)

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NumN

adjunctions: prepositions

conjuctions: prejunctions

adjunctions: prepositions

conjuctions: prejunctions

adjunctions: prepositions,

conjuctions: prejunctions




Table 8.  The nominal morphology of dolichocephals with macrolithic hand-axe industry

    Elementary grammatical systems fall into three types of nominal and verbal morphology. The gender-oriented morphology is attributable to the language family of tall dolichocephals with hand-axe industry and vegetal subsistence. In its original appearance documented in African, Melanesian and Australian Negrids it partitioned nouns into classes of animate, inanimate, vegetal and arboreal classes. These classed were distinguished by prefixes put in front of nouns. In the Horn of Africa their family ran upon Asiatic races with agglutinating language structures and transitioned to suffixing morphology of inflecting type. The group of Asiatic plant-gatherers, hoe-cultivators and agriculturalists reduced the system of twelve nominal classifiers to the opposition of animate and inanimate nouns. Their category included humans, animals, animistic spirits as well as sacral deities.

This categorisation survived also in Anatolian tongues until their further expansion in the Balkans encountered Gravettian tribes of Alpinids with sex-based gender classifications. Their clash resulted in the rise of sex-based nominal gender enriched by masculine o-stems and feminine a-stems. The core of European Gothids accepted the dual opposition of masculine and feminine gender but their core remained reluctant to their addition and continued to adhere to nominal i-stems. Their subclasses coexisted with Caucasoid vegetal u/w-stems that can be explained as remains of Caucasoid b-plurals referring to agricultural crops and instruments of farming activities. The classification of Indo-European thematic and athematic stems may be regarded as a hold-over of ancient invasions and infiltrations surviving in residual form in the territory of Europe. The sex-based gender distinction of the suffixes -o and -a first appeared in African Chadic and Ethiopian Galla languages and their spread all over Europe was due to the Gravettian colonisation of short-sized brachycephals to the north. They were embedded into the system of IE accidence as new thematic stems distinguishing the masculine o-stems and feminine a-stems. The u-stems penetrated into the IE word stock with the propagation of Neolithic farming from the Fertile Crescent to the Danubian river basin.


(from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, p. 35-42)



1   Chris Stringer, Peter Andrews: Lone Survivors: How We Came to Be the Only Humans on Earth. New York 2012.

2 Harry H. Johnston: A Comparative Study of the Bantu and  Semi-Bantu Languages I-II. Oxford, 1919-1922.             

1  Ursula Schlenther: Brandbestattung und Seelenglaube. Berlin 1960, p. 121.

2  Megasthenes, Indika 27.

3  J. H. Steward, ed.: Handbook of South American Indians I-VII. Washington, vol. III, 38, 677.

4 Michael Balter: Mysterious link emerges between Native Americans and people half a globe away. American Association for the Advancement of Science, July 21, 2015.

5  Christy Turner: Teeth, Needles, Dogs and Siberia: Bioarchaeological Evidence for the Colonization of the New World. The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World. University of California Press, 2002, p. 138. 

6  Michael Balter: Mysterious link emerges between Native Americans and people half a globe away. American Association for the Advancement of Science, July 21, 2015.

7 Pontus Skoglund, Swapan Mallick, et al.:  Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas. Nature, 2015.

8  Johanna Nichols: The origin and dispersal of languages: Linguistic evidence. In Nina Jablonski and Leslie C. Aiello, eds., The Origin and Diversification of Language, pp. 127–70. (Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences, 24.) San Francisco: California Academy of Sciences, 1998.

9 Renato Biasutti: Le Razze e i popoli della terrra, vol. II. Africa, p. 359.