Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

  Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*     Language taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europic

*     Nordic

*     Indic

*     Littoralic

*     Caucasic

*     Elamitic

*     Negric

*     Melanic

*     Tungic

*     Pelasgic

*     Cimbric

*     Turanic 

*     Ugro-Scythic

*     Uralo-Sarmatic

*     Lappic

*     Sinic



*       Spain    France

*       Italy     Schweiz

*       Britain    Celts

*       Scandinavia

*       Germany

*       Balts   Slavs

*       Greece

*       Thrace     Dacia

*       Anatolia



The Families of Lappic, Slavic, Gallic, Annamitic and Sinic Languages

 Clickable terms are red on the yellow background



Table 1. The Systematic Glottogenesis of Human Language Families






Map 1. Lappids with incineration burials, semisubterranean lean-to huts, blood group A, Y-hg C and O,  lingual phonology and isolating reduplicative morphology

(from Pavel Bělíček: The Atlas of Systematic Anthropology I. The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, Map 5, pp. 77)


Map 1. Indices of shortsized stature in Lappids (after R. Biasutti)

(Pavel Bělíček: The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2018, p. 97, Map 12)


Map 2. The distribution and ethnic identification of high rates of the blood group A


Clicks, Implosives, Palatals and their Satemism

     Clicks. The Bushmen are mixed racially with the Hottentot cattle-breeders but their anthropology and language structures preserve many archaic features of the Palaeo-Pygmic race. Most of their words exhibit bisyllabic patterns and almost 70 per cent of their lexical roots start with clicks. Clicks are defined as ‘velar injectives whose pronunciation accompanies a velar occlusion with a labial, dental, alveolar, lateral or palatal occlusion’ (Krupa, Genzor, Drozdík 1983: 409). They are called injectives or implosives because they are pronounced with an inspiratory stream of air that is common in clicking the tongue and sucking liquid food. The current linguistic tradition has introduced specific symbols for their notation but it is preferable to replace them by a system of diacritic writing so as to emphasise their analogy with palatals. 

   Satemism. The systemic shortage of backer stops resulted in satemism, a tendency to reproduce velars in loanwords as sibilant or affricates. Comparative linguistics classifies descendants of the eastern branch of Indo-European as satm languages because they carried out the change k’e > s seen in the Avesta satm ‘hundred’. On the other hand, descendants of the western branch of Indo-European are classified as centum languages after Latin centum ‘hundred’ in belief that they depalatalised palatal stops by shifts k’ > k and g’ > g. We believe that the dichotomy of centum and satǝm languages cannot be reduced to an isolated shift in the evolution of Indo-European but represents a more general tendency to avoiding velar consonants. A broader view would explain it as satemism, a series of shifts reproducing velars before front vowels e, i as sibilants, common to all Pygmoid and Laponoid languages.

     Indo-European comparative grammar assumes that the satǝm shift k’e > s occurred when the Indo-Iranians and Slavs began to split from other Indo-Europeans. This shift assibilated Indo-European palatal velars k’, g’, g’h: 























s, θ

z, δ

z, δ




Table 148. Assibilation in eastern Indo-European languages (Erhart 1982: 51)

After separating into families, this assibilation was followed by several independent palatalisations. Indo-Iranian ke, kwe, ki, kwi changed into ča, či, ge, gwe, gi, gwi into ja, ji and ghe, gwhe, ghi, gwhi into ha, hi. Similar pala-talisations took place in Common Slavic, Old French, Latvian and Tokharian. The first palatalisation in Common Slavic carried out the shifts k > č and g > ž. The second Slavic palatalisation in the late 1st millennium AD turned , ki into , ci, , gi into , zi and chě, chi into , si (Erhart 1982: 51).

Melodic Prosody and Palatal Vocalism

    Tones.  The original system of melodic tonality was preserved in most languages of Laponoid origin as a complementary phenomenon without phonemic relevance. In the Indo-European area melodic accent of acute and circumflex type can be observed in Slavonic, Baltic, Greek and Indo-Iranian languages. It usually appears only in the first or second part of two-mora syllables and exhibits a rising or falling intonation according as the first or the second mora is accented. The acute in Greek and Serbo-Croatian has a rising intonation with an accent laid on the second mora. The circumflex has a falling intonation with the accent placed on the first mora. J. Kuryłowicz (1952, 1968) studied their rules in comparison to Lithuanian and concluded that their tones are of different origin. The Lithuanian circumflex carries a rising tone while the acute a falling tone (Erhart 1982: 63). 

     The Indo-Iranian melodic accent was evidenced in Vedic texts but its modern survivals are confined to Panjabi, Rajastani, Paxari and Hindi.  Panjabi has a low (or falling-rising) tone, middle tone and high tone (rising or rising-falling). These tones exhibit phonemic relevance because they distinguish the meaning in similar words ghoŗā /kòŗa/ ‘horse’, kohŗā /kōŗa/ ‘whip’, koŗā /kóŗa/ ‘прокаженный  (Zograf 1976: 180-1). 

    Nasal vowels. Laponoid tribes had vowel and consonant systems that were based on palatal and nasal correlations. Nasal vowels ĩ, ã, ũ do not regularly appear in languages with prenasalised stops but both may have a common origin in dissociated nasals. The Old Slavonic nasals ę, ą are explained either as ‘nasal diphthongs’ eN, oN where the nasal quality is concentrated in an independent nasal semivowel N (Trubetzkoy, Meillet) or they are regarded as pure nasalised vowels K, õ where the nasal expiratory stream flows during the whole period of oral resonance (Komárek 1969: 22). Their rise may be associated with a vocalic dissolution of medial clusters -mb-, -nd-, -ng- that are common in Gallo-Romance languages.

   Palatal harmony. Laponoid languages often palatalised back vowels after palatal consonants and changed back vowels o, a into their front counterparts e, ě. This change had nothing to do with Uralic palatal synharmonism that resulted from umlaut shift after the dephonologisation of rounded vowels. Their palatalisation was not associated with balancing front and back vowels in neighbouring syllables but had a cause in the dissociation of the palatal component in the preceding consonant.  


Table 145. Vowel systems of European Laponoids

     Table 145 shows a quadrangular layout of vowel systems in Gallo-Romance, Celtic, Slavonic and Saamic languages. The two systems on the left distinguish the inner rectangle of short vowels i, u, e, o. In Old Slavic short vowels i, u turned into ultra-short vowels ь, ъ. The outer rectangle is formed by long vowels i, u, ě, a or ī, ū, ā, ē. As far as open vowels are concerned, Slavonic and Q-Celtic (Goidelic) languages carried out shifts a, o > o and ā, ō > ā. The long vowel a/ā has its palatal counterpart in the open vowel ě or ē. Their open pronunciation does not justify transcribing their vocalic quality in Lappish by æ, . The closed rounded ū usually lost its rounding and was pronounced as y. Most Q-Celtic vowels had their nasal counterparts arisen from combinations of vowels with the following clusters -nt, -nk (Bednarczuk 1988: II, 652, 656, 658). Nasal vowels appear in Lappish, Polabian Drevan, Polish, Venetian, Gallo-Romance and Raeto-Romance dialects.

     Projections of Proto-Gallic into Gallo-Romance dialects can be observed in nasal vowels, satemisation, palatalisation, unrounded variants of y/ū < u. Gallo-Italian dialects in Italy are remarkable for fronting and unrounding u/ū. Indo-European u/ū is reflected in Old Bulgarian and Church Slavonic as y and Greek (Aeolic) ü. In the Raeto-Romance group their lawful reflex was ü/i while Gallo-Romance dialects rendered them as ü or u. In North Hessen and South Swiss they turned into ü. In Polabian they yielded oi after labials. Rounded u/ū were removed because Laponoid languages did not like back rounded sounds. 


 (from P. Bělíček: Prehistoric Dialects, Prague II, 2004, pp. 661-666)


The Lingual Phonology of  Sanids, Pygmids,  Lappids, Annamites and Sinids

   The Lappic type of phonologies is constituted by lingual languages with a non-pulmonic lingual type of consonantism (Table 7). It produces sounds by a sucking action of the tongue that releases a lingual ingressive airstream mechanism.4 Its typical representatives are clicks that are uttered with ‘a double closure in the vocal cavity and an egressive airstream following the release of the posterior closure.5 Further definitions explained them asobstruents articulated with two closures (points of contact) in the mouth, one forward and one at the back.6 Clicks with a clear sucking sound effect appear only in Khoisan languages of South Africa. Outside South Africa click consonants crop up just in the Cushic tongue Dahalo in Kenya and in the Damin language spoken by Aborigines in Australia. It is of great interest that clicks appear in the 32-phoneme repertory of chimpanzees.

   Clicks look incompatible with consonantisms of other African languages but local toponymy in the Namibian neighbourhood abounds in many place names starting with ts- and tc-. They must be estimated as dephonologised and garbled clicks. Their sucking sounds resemble the pronunciation of palatals and sibilant s-affricates, so it is possible that they were applied as their substitutes in the languages of African Pygmies. Their consonantism teems with palatals, postalveolars and sibilant affricates. Its phonemes in neighbouring dialects are rewritten as palatal /by dy gy/ and velarised affricates /pγ tγ kγ qγ/. Such phonological systems acted as ideal Palaeolithic archetypes but owing to mixing words of different origin in mixed regional domains, they were integrated into neighbouring hybrid unities. In most cases they were reproduced as imprints or dephonologised substitutes.


Glottalic languages

Baskids, Ugrids, Scythids

Lappic lingual phonology

Lappids, Alpinids, Pygmids

Sanid lingual phonemes

African Sanids

Murmured breathy phonemes

Hindus and Sinids

reduced mixed vowel ǝ

reduced central vowels ǝ ɜ a

3-level or 4-level vocalism:

closed high, mid, open low

reduced mixed vowel ǝ

vowels: i e a o u

short vowels: i e a o u

long vowels: ī ā ū

no nasal vowels

nasal vowel: ã õ ũ, aⁿ eⁿ uⁿ

opposition of oral

and nasal vowels

nasal vowels: ã ĩ ũ

advanced tongue root


no vowel synharmony

nasal harmony?

no vowel harmony

nasal harmony?

nasal anusvāra harmonisation

aṁ iṁ uṁ or ã ĩ ũ

pharyngeal vowels iˤ eˤ aˤ oˤ uˤ

no pharyngeal vowels

breathy iʱ eʱ aʱ oʱ uʱ

no pharyngeal vowels

tense ejectives: p’ t’ k’

palatals: by dy gy

palatals: by dy gy

aspirated ph dh kh

lax implosives: ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ɠ̊

sibilant s-affricates

clicks: ǀ ǁ ǃ ǂ

murmured breathy bh dh gh

uvular consonants: q χ

no uvulars

no uvulars

glottal h

assibilated affricates sp st sk

s-affricates: ts dz ʤ

ts dz

s-affricates: ʒ dʒʱ

velarised aspirates:

pγ tγ kγ qγ

satemised velars

ky: > s, gy > z

velarised aspirates:

pγ tγ kγ qγ

plosives: p t k b d

murmured series

trill r

palatal fricative ř


murmured breathy flap rh

borrowed tonal systems

tone, melody, pitch

tone, pitch accent

tone, pitch accent

Table 7.  The glottalic and lingual phonology

   The Isolating and Reduplicative Morphology of  Sanids, Pygmids,  Lappids, Annamites and Sinids

    Classical historical grammar fulminated thousands of sound shifts but brought few testimonies of similar radical changes in grammar, accidence and syntax. Phonological repertories tend to exhibit radical innovations but they remain unparalleled in other linguistic aspects. In cultural evolution most grammatical categories remain relatively untouched and adopt mutations only in suffixal morphemes. This discrepancy is removed if linguistic analysis focuses on spoken dialects instead of the official written standard of national languages. This is another good reason for promoting linguistic typological studies that do not restrict their focus to describing individual language structures but build bridges between tongues with similar types of traits.    

  The phonological repertory of Lappids was preserved best among Sanids in South Africa but their grammatical categories remained conserved in the original state only in Southeast Asia among the Sinids, Annamites and Negritos. 


Tonal semi-suffixing morphology

Sanic and Chadic languages

Sex-oriented morphology

Lappid, Slavids, Alpinids

Isolating reduplicative grammar

Sinids, Negritos

semi-prefixing morphology

semi-inflective morphology

isolating morphology

noun classes/classifiers

semi-suffixing sex-gender formation

gender: masculine o-ending

feminine a-ending

nominal categories

suffixing gender formation:

masculine o-stems

feminine a-stems

nominal categories

suffixing gender formation:

animate/human inanimate


sex-oriented number:

masculine i-plurals

suffixed feminine e-plurals

number: singular plural

masculine i-plurals

suffixed feminine e-plurals

number: singular plural

reduplicative plurals

cases include vocatives

cases include vocatives

no cases

reduplicative comparatives

inflective comparatives

reduplicative comparatives

adjectives: habitual adjectives

actual adjectives, category of state

adjectives: habitual adjectives

actual adjectives, category of state


verbs: category of habitualis and actualis  

habitualis: habitual present tense

actualis: progressive present tense

verbs: category of habitualis and actualis  

verbs: habitual present tense

progressive present tense

verbs: category of aspect

perfective aspect

progressive aspect

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: NA

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NNum

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: AN (NA)

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NumN

word order: SVO

adjective attributes: NA

nominal attributes: NG

numeral attribution NumN

adjunctions: isolated particles

conjunctions: isolated particles

adjunctions: isolated prepositions

conjunctions: isolated conjunctions

adjunctions: isolated particles

conjunctions: isolated particles


that-clauses, no gerunds

that-clauses, no gerunds

Table 8. The grammatical morphology of Lappicm, Sanic and Sinic brachycephals with incineration burials

   Elementary grammatical systems fall into three types of nominal and verbal morphology. The gender-oriented morphology is attributable to the language family of tall dolichocephals with hand-axe industry and vegetal subsistence. In its original appearance documented in African, Melanesian and Australian Negrids it partitioned nouns into classes of animate, inanimate, vegetal and arboreal classes. These classed were distinguished by prefixes put in front of nouns. In the Horn of Africa their family ran upon Asiatic races with agglutinating language structures and transitioned to suffixing morphology of inflecting type. The group of Asiatic plant-gatherers, hoe-cultivators and agriculturalists reduced the system of twelve nominal classifiers to the opposition of animate and inanimate nouns. Their category included humans, animals, animistic spirits as well as sacral deities.


 (from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, p. 35-36)



4 Click consonant, (online); Amanda Miller: The representation of clicks. In: Oostendorp et al. eds.: The Blackwell Companion to Phonology, 2011.

5 George N. ClementsSylvester Osu:  Explosives, Implosives, and Nonexplosives: the Linguistic Function of Air Pressure Differences in Stops.  Laboratory Phonology 7. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, pp. 299-350, p. 56.

6 Click consonant, (online),