Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

  Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











Language taxonomy

Ethnic taxonomy



















Spain    France

Italy     Schweiz

Britain    Celts



Balts   Slavs


Thrace     Dacia




Dialects Interpreted as Heterogeneous Remains in National Tongues and Medieval Administrative Domains

 Clickable terms are red on the yellow background



               Prolegomena to Substratic (Infra-)Dialectology

Nostratic languages are not daughters of one Euroasian mother tongue but cumulative clusters overlapping several heterogeneous Palaeolithic tribal languages.

European and Indo-European languages are not cognate daughters of an eneolithic language unity in Eurasia but loose amalgams gathered by convergent composed from reconstruction of Mesolithic Creole Pidgin Getic.

one compact and consistent structure of

Frisians, Prussians and Brahmans form a two-way highroad of Mesolithic littoral kitchen midden  cultures of overlaps shining through the common Indian Getic.

Dialects are not cognate daughters of their national mother tongues, but its oppressed victims absorbed by the official written standard as ethnic minorities.



Sound shifts did not arise by self-fertilised autogenesis but as mixtures of different discrete ethnic substrata.

The do not represent consistent integrated structures but chaotic clusters of lexical and phonological anomalies.  T

The do not represent consistent integrated structures but chaotic clusters of lexical and phonological anomalies. 

They cannot be deduced from directly from national mother tongues because they are their step-daughters, who were adopted as foundlings. They cannot be deduced from directly from national mother tongues because they are their step-daughters, who were adopted as foundlings.

Language unities are fallacies concealing multiethnic domains created by convergent development of one administrative, military, demographic or quantitative majority.

Dialects are not new outgrowths of national mother tongues but archaic residual structures of extinct ethnic tribal minorities.





Dutch dialects

Frisian dialects

Albanian dialects

Moldavian dialects

Macedonian dialects


Danish dialects

Norwegian dialects

Swedish dialects

Icelandic dialects

Faroese dialects


Scottish dialects

Irish dialects

Welsh dialects

Cornish dialects

Breton dialects


Italic dialects

French dialects

Spanish dialects

Portuguese dialects

Romanian dialects

Sardinian dialects


Czech dialects

Slovak dialects

Polish dialects

Russian dialects

Ukrainian dialects

Belarusian dialects

Sorbian dialects


Slovene dialects

Croatian dialects

Serbian dialects

Albanian dialects

Bulgarian dialects

Moldavian dialects

Macedonian dialects


Lithuanian dialects

Latvian. dialects

Prussian dialects

Yotvingian dialects





Iranian dialects

Pashto dialects

Balochi idalects

Hindi dialects



Pashto dialects


Map 1. Italic Ethnic Tribes, Languages and Dialects

Italic tribes and their dialects


    Italic racial and ethnic varieties have to be anchored in prehistoric evidence and coordinated with archaeological cultures. Their identity is usually sought in the Neolithic pottery but many conspicuous coincidences appear also in ethnonymy and the toponomastic studies of places names. Since time immemorial the prehistoric Apennine Peninsula has been a homeland of the Mediterranean slim gracile race with the Y-haplogroup T. Its possible ancestors were Levalloisians with piscivorous subsistence and Leptolithic flake tools. And the Cardial Impresso Ware was only their Neolithic reincarnation. In Ancient Italy the carriers of this Neolithic heritage appeared as the Pelasgoid tribes of Latini, Falisci, Apuli and Daunii, who corresponded to Greek Pelasgians and Danaans.

    Comparative linguistics attempts to tackle the Italic crux with the aid of traditional templates of Indoeuropeistics such as Proto-Romance and Proto-Italic. It realises (Alkire – Rosen 2010) that Proto-Romance is not an earliest ancestor of genetically cognate kinship but a last residual product of the Roman military empire. The prevailing opinion assumes that Romance languages are divergent offshoots of Vulgar Latin. It focuses only on the domestic literary tradition and neglects provincial dialects. Even under the Roman control they created vivid and lively varieties of Gallic, Dacian and Dalmatian Latin. The subordinated provincial languages adopted the imperial standard from Rome but their word stock and grammatical patterns did not perish. They survived in numerous additions to spoken elocution and their blend survived as a germ of Balkan national languages. Similar reservations may be addressed to the concept Proto-Italic, it could not exist and act as a common progenitor. It arose from dogmatic preconceptions concealing primordial diversity (Pisani 1958, 1961; Bossong 2017). The prehistoric peninsula had neither divine nor human word creator of all Italic languages, what ruled was the progress of ethnic cohabitation and social permeation that prioritised more populous or more influential competing tribes. Another erroneous common fallacy is to believe that the Proto-Italic people came to the peninsula from somewhere north of the Alps (Bossong 2017: 859) or the Pontic steppes (Gimbutas 1997). All languages come into being in situ, they are born out of the nutrient substrate of autochthonous tribal civilisation.

    The Y-haplogroup frequencies of modern populations in Italy summarise that the most common is the rate of R1b (39%) characteristic of Etruscoids. This complies with the finding that its maximal occurrence in Tuscany amounts to 52.5%. The second position is taken by the Y-haplogroup J2 (15.5%) that can be attributed to the Caucaso-Elamitoids, who formed the core of Neolithic peasants of Anatolia, Persia and North Africa. They were remarkable for   bull-fighting games and bull-leaping festivals associated with the initiation of young boys and girls. The Indo-European Nordids with the Y-hg I1 participated in relatively small rates (4.5%) and low rates of contribution were measured also in the occurrence of the Y-hg I2*/I2a pertaining to the Danubian peasantry with the Linear Band Ware. High ratios of distribution are remarkable for the Y-hg E1b1b that indicate migration from North Africa and may be due to North African Alpinoids. They joined Gravettian migrants drifting to Europe via Spain, Italy and Anatolia and represented the ethnic varieties of Gaels, Gauls, Celts and Slavs. The Pelasgoid ethnic component exhibits relatively low frequencies of T (2.5%), because its genetic pool is diluted by enormous antiquity.

    The Pelasgoid core does not exhibit high rates in population genetics since it was overpowered by later migrations. Its people were lakeside and riverside fishermen living on piscivorous subsistence and buried their dead in oval pits besprinkled by ochre dye. Their southern mainstream developed the architectonic style of conical roundhouses called rondels in eastern Africa. In Illyria, Dalmatia and Carinthia it built circular single-celled stone-walled roundhouses covered by the conical pointed roof made out of perishable material. In Apulia it was known as trullo, in Spain it was referred to as palloza, and in Scotland and Ireland it was called crannog. The northern mainstream continued in Aurignacian traditions and gave preference to quadrangular pile-huts and lake-dwellings constructed on wooden platforms standing on pillars rammed into the lake bed. In Neolithic France it developed types of Chassey and Cortaillod cultures, while in the Po valley, Northern Italy, it created Lagozza lacustrine sites. Their remnants were later excavated as the Terramare culture (c. 1700–1150 BC). Its inhabitants were denoted terramaricoli owing to the phrase terra marna, ‘marl-earth’, where the attribute ‘marl stood’ for lacustrine sediments. Similar finds were common also in the Carverna delle Arene Candide, ‘cave of white sands’ in Liguria, where the dead skeletons lay on a layer of red ochre. Its culture is attributed to Ligurians, who were famous for special pottery called cultura dei vasi a bocca quadrata ‘square mouthed vases’. The ethnic pertinence of Ligurians is unknown but it may correspond to Pelasgoid locations Illyria, Larsa, and Larissa beginning with the ethnonym Lar-. Table 14 uses the symbol ´ for denoting controversial taxonomic evaluation.


Etruscoid dialects

     Italian dialects are traditionally derived from the hypothetical proto-language Proto-Italian although they exhibit numerous inconsistencies and discrepancies. The Tuscan dialect clearly descends from Etruscan that is considered as a Non-Indo-European contraband in the European heritage. Etruscan was an agglutinative language with chains of several agglutinative suffixes. Instead of prepositions it had agglutinative postpositions expressing locative cases as it is common in Altaic languages. Instead of conjunctions linking independent nouns it had enclitic coordinate ‘postjunctions’ appending suffixes -ka/-ca/-c ‘and’ and -um/-m ‘but’. Its word-order was of SOV type. It lacked voiced stops /b/, /d/, /g/ owing to shifting the IE voice aspirates bh-, dh-, gh- to fricatives /f-/, /f-/ and /h-/. It lacked the IE voiced-voiceless opposition characteristic of European chordal languages and applied the fortis-lenis opposition common in Asiatic pulmonic languages. These traits are reminiscent of Turcoid languages with plural markers in -r,-lar. Etruscan applied the archaic plural marker -ar as in clan, ‘son’, clenar, ‘sons’. The accompanying vocalic change signals Turcoid umlaut and vowel synharmony. There existed the opposition of front rounded vowels with back rounded vowels although the phonemes /ö/, /ü/, /å/ have not been confirmed for sure. The opposition of roundness is evident only  in the Piacentino and in western dialects of the Emilian dialect. They exhibit rounded front vowels /yøœ/ and a mid-central vowel sound /ə/.

     In Etruscoid dialects there were only short vowels, while consonants knew short and long plosives and favoured doubling gemination in medial positions. Geminate consonants are now peculiar to standard Italian, Tuscan, Neapolitan and other Etruscoid languages of southern Italy. In Gallo-Italic dialects gemination disappears. If standard Italian spells palla, ‘bal’ and penna ‘pen’, dialectal Venetian says ba³a and péna.

   The Tuscan dialect (dialetto toscano) called gorgia has inherited the opposition between fortis initial stops /p/, /t/, /k/ and lenis consonants in medial intervocalic position. When found in postvocalic position, the stops /p/, /t/, /k/ are pronounced as fricatives: /p/ → [ɸ], /t/ → [θ], /k/ → [h]. Fricative spirantisation occurs also to the voiceless affricate /tʃ/ and the voiced affricate /dʒ/ → [ʒ]. Such consonantal changes displayed tendencies to pulmonic fricativisation sharing some features similar to Grimm’s Germanic Sound Shifts. Turcoid origins are clearly seen in consonantal rhotacism. In Latin, Umbrian and Neapolitan the intervocalic /-s-/ between vowels underwent rhotacism s > r. The Oscan dialect  pronounces the initial and intervocalic /d/ as /r/ so that Madonna sounds as Maronna.

    The Tuscan dialect is spoken by the progeny of the Rinaldino culture that conveyed cultural traits of necropoleis and burial shaft graves. They were shared also by a group of other Etruscoid archaeological cultures: Remedello culture, Gaudo complex, Laterza culture and its Sicilian mutation. The Remedello culture had descendants in Raetian, Camunic and Trentino dialects. Their close neighbours spoke Tirolese and Cimbric dialects spoken by German localities. It is highly probable that they all belonged to a broad stream of Microlithic cultures of Mesolithic reindeer hunters that resulted in the large-scale Germanisation of western Getic tribes. An Anatolian predecessor of Etruscans is sought in Lemnian spoken on the isle of Lemnos near to Anatolia. The mainstream of scholars searches for its forefathers in Lemnos and Lydia but both ethnic sites are an erroneous guess. Turcoid Etruscans shared fishing and piracy with Lydians and Pelasgoids in the group of Sea Peoples but gave preference to microlithic arrowheads over long leptolithic blades.

     More probable predecessors are seen in several Thracian tribal dialects that corresponded to the Neolithic Turdaº culture, known also as Vinèa complex. Its ware was remarkable for black or dark polished pottery with narrow bottoms peculiar to Iberians, Hiberni and other southern Turcoids with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b. Its northern brothers produced tempered ceramic with pointed bottoms. Both tribal groups built vertical cliff-dwellings, subterranean shaft graves and artificial rock-cut caves hewed by pics from reindeer antler. Such customs were characteristic of several groups of Germanoid or Cimbroid populations in the Balkans, namely Herzegovinians, Gemer people or Albanian Cimbrians Himorë.

     A suitable marker of recognition are apical retroflexed consonants. Etruscoid dialects preserved non-retracted  apical alveolars [t͡s̺, d͡z̺, s̺, z̺] that appear as allophones without codification into the written standard. They are often erroneously described as dentals but it is more adequate to classify them as denti-alveolars.  In basic environments the typical phonemes /n, l, r/ are apical alveolars [].

     A mirror copy of apical denti-alveolars is provided by laminal denti-alveolars [t̪, d̪], whose phonetic symbol is determined for dental pronunciation. Dentalised laminal alveolars [t̪͡s̪, d̪͡z̪, s̪, z̪] are pronounced with the blade of the tongue very close to the upper front teeth, while the tip of the tongue is positioned behind lower front teeth. Laminal retroflexed consonants are disappearing from the standard usage and may be evaluated as a remnant of Pelasgoid dialects. Their import was drifting to Italy with Carinthians speaking Carniolian dialects. It appeared with the Polada culture and the palafitticoli lake-dwellings entwining along shores of the Po river. Their archaic brothers were Dalmatians and Illyrians, who built round conical rondavels kažuns with a stone-walled base. These remotely affiliated ethnicities fused into the mainstream of Epi-Cardial and Impresso ceramics. Their most famous representatives were the Apuli and Dauni along the eastern coasts of the Apennine Peninsula.     




    The Etruscoid majority in the south competed with the Gallic prevalence winning in the north. Its messengers spread cremations funeral rites and deposed the incinerated ashes into urns decorated with patterns common to the Greek Hellenes. Their ethnic element concentrated in two nests: one lay in Albanian Epirus where their soldierly stronger neighbours Dorians united them as a confederation of Hellenes, Aeolians and Ionian, while the other was found new homeland in Attica. In the Dark Age after the Fall of Troy they fled to Italy and founded there new colonies of Venetian, Lepontine and Gallic incinerators with cremation burials. Their predecessors had resided in Italy since the arrival of the Furfooz race of Gravettians and the Stroked Ware. Italian archaeology discerns their presence in the  ‘geometric-linear style’ and ‘meander-spiral style’ of the fourth millennium BC. The northern Gallic tribes dominated Italy in the age of Atestine/Este culture (1000 BC), Golasecca (900 BC) complex, Villanovan, and Latial culture.

    These populous ethnic components took part in the exchange of social labour as working masses while ruling castes assisted only as ruling minorities characterised by rare density. The settlement of Neolithic farmers copied the flat-roofed multi-roomed labyrinths of North African peasantry but their theocratic kingdoms and chieftaincies were soon superseded by the military domination of the Bronze Age torch-bringers of Chalcolithic industry. Their invasions were responsible for the Bascoid and Pyreneic racial varieties affiliated to the Dinaric race in the Moesian Balkans. Their cultural heritage survived in Italian megalithic monuments such the dolmen site Li Scusi, Acropolis of Alatris, and Saint-Martin de Orléans next to the borders of France. As a part of megalithism widespread in western Europe its tendencies affected also neighbouring tribes. Megalithic towers nuraghi were concentrated in the northwest Sardinia, talayots prevailed in Menorca and Majorca, while chamber-tomb navetas and table-shaped taulas abounded in the Balearic Islands. However, the Corsican Belatoni developed a side branch of megalithism called Torrean civilisation owing to building smaller towers torri. It was focused on erecting menhirs and standing stones. It was a sort of Epi-Cardial Pelasgoid megalithism different from genuine cupola-shaped cairn constructions. The Balearic chamber-tombs navetas were represented by Naveta des Todons, i.e. boat-shaped chamber-tomb of Teutons from hewn stones. They may be classified as a type of Epi-Microlithic megalithism blending Dinaric cairns with rock-cut galleries. 

    All megalith-builders drifted from the eastern steppe grasslands inhabited by herders of Uralo-Ugric origin but they had Palaeolithic ancestors indicating an early schism between these tribal moieties. Ugric branch descended from the Vasco-Abasgo-Scythic stock with copular dome-shaped beehive huts and produced Lanceolithic lanceolate heads of long lances. The Uralic branch was referred to by ancient Greeks as Sarmatians or Hippophagoi owing to eating horsemeat. It differed from the former by erecting quadrangular four-pitch marquee tents and producing the Foliolithic leaf-shaped or stemmed projectiles to lances. Its lineage seems to lead from the leaf-shaped lance-heads of the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician culture (43,000 BP) that started from the Jerzmanowicien cave new Kraków, continued to Ranis in Thuringia, and ended on Lincomb Hill in Englands. Similar leaf-shaped industry was tracked in the Solutrean culture excavated in western parts France. Solutrean tribes also manifested horse-focused orientation, they hunted herds of horses by chasing them to the margin of abyss and letting them fall down. Leaf shaped heads were dug up also in the Aterian culture and probably dominated also in the megalithic nuraghi and torri of Corsica and Sardinia. The following table 15 tracks the chains of ancient migrations and applies superscripts c to ancient cities, h to hydronyms, i to isles, and o to oronyms. The N-SE abbreviation stands for migration from the north in the southeast orientation.

Italic family = Hallstatt Sarmatids È Alpinids È Etruscoids È Epi-Cardial Pelasgids È Poladan lake-dwellers È  Messapian dolmen-builders È Abruzzian Bellbeaker Folk È Bruttian Elamitoids.

Megalith-builders in Italy (cults of Uranos and Saturn): Piceni, Vestini, Peucetii, Messapii.

Ancestors: Uluzzian culture (south central Italy, 49,000 BP), Artenacian (France, Switzerland, 2400 BC),

   the Ozieri culture or San Michele culture (north Sardinia, 3200 BC, pre-nuragic architecture), 

   Messapian or Salentinian culture (800 BC), Picenian or Umbrian culture (500 BC).      

Megalith dolmens in Italy: dolmen di Albarosa, Passage Grave in Puglia, dolmen di Frisari in Puglia.

Toponymic chain NW-SE: Veragri, Seduni, Pisaec, Pisanaec, Pisarensec, Urgoc, Saturniac, Piceni, 

Vestini, Peucetii, Messapii.

Hallstatt Sarmatids (princely burials, chariot burials, cults of Mars the wood-pecker, ver sacra raids,

   elopements of brides) = (Marsi, Marrucini) + (Sabini/Sabines, Samnites) + (Oscans/Osci, Ausones),

(Volsci, Vulci, Volsinii) + Boii.

Epi-Cardial Impresso Ware (Epi-Levalloisian residues?, Pelasgoid seaside fishermen and seafarers,  

   Sea Peoples, pottery with imprints of the cockle, a marine mollusc Cardium edulis; waterside

   dwellings in conical roundhouses, menhirs, standing stones, stone alleys, Y-hg T).

Italic Pelasgoids Paeligni, Apuli, Daunii, Pelasgoid Oenotrians (Apulian roundhouse trullo,

   menhirs, standing stones).

Menhir standing stones in Puglia: Balice, Casamassima, Castelberg, Casermette, Spongano, Bagnolo.

Apulo-Daunian ethnonymic roots = Pal-/Apul- + Daun- + Lar- + Kar- + Let-.

Toponymic chain of ethnonyms N-SE: Carni, Bellunumc, Palaviumc, Tennetumc, Felsinac, Peltuinumc,

   Paeligni, Pallanumc, Caraceni, Larinumc, Daunii, Apulia/Puglia, Apulli, Blerac, Blandac, Dioscuriash,

   Crotonc, Pelorush, Phalacrumc, Apolloniac, Palicec.

Epi-Tardenoisian Etruscoid cultures (necropoleis, rock shelters, rock-cut gallery graves, hepatomancy,

   burnished ware, blood group B, Y-hg R1b-U152 (S28)).

Etruscoid archaeology: Stentinello culture (Sicily, Calabria, c. 4800 BC), Gaudo culture (Campania

   2900 BC), Laterza/Laterza- Cellino San Marco culture (2900 BC), Remedello culture (cultura di

   Remedello, Northern Italy, cca 2700 BC), Rinaldone culture (cca 2200 BC, Lazio), Canegrate culture

   (western Lombardy, 1300 BC), Apennine culture (1500 BC, burnished ware), Ischia and Lipari group.

Etruscoid Raeti + Etrusci + Camerini + Umbrii + Hernici + Neapolitani + Campani + Calabrese +

   + Sikani/Sikanoi + Siceli/Siculi (Greek Sikeloi, Egyptian Shekelesh, necropoleis of Pantaleica and

   Cassibile, tombe a formo‚ oven-shaped and beehive-shaped tombs).

Table 3. A survey of correlations between Italic races and their archaeological cultures


Gallo-Italic Dialects


      The principal antipodes of Etruscoid and Epi-Cardial dialects are Gallo-Italic dialects (dialetti gallo-italici). Their characteristic traits are pitch accent, acute, grave and circumflex intonation, nasal vowels, rich diphthongisation and vocalic quantity, palatalisation, and sibilant affrication. Their family includes Venetian, Emilian, Piemontese, Lombard, Romagnol, Ligurian and Gallo-Piceno.

Their frontiers were originally dissected by the occurrence of cremation burials in the north and inhumation in necropoleis or shaft graves  (tombe a fossa) in the south. The Indo-European status of Ligurian is disputed owing to untypical quadrangular pots (bocca quadrata). Their simple  explanation considers them as a derivation of Lusatian quadrangular hut-urns. The toponymy of the Alps swarms with place names such as Lugano, Lausanne and Luserna that may have arisen as the westernmost outposts of the Lusatian culture (13000 BC) of Slavic Urnfielders. Their ethnic element crept into Gallia with the Golasecca and Villanovan culture but there were also numerous colonies of incinerators with the Y-DNA haplogroup E1b1b. They crop up in Calabria (16,5 %), Basilicata (22 %), Campania (16,5 %)  and Sicily (20,5 %) and may be ascribed to different origins.

    The chief anomaly of Gallo-Italic dialects consists in a tendency to palatalise velars /k/, /g/ to sibilants /s/, /z/, alveolo-palatal affricates /tʃ/, /dʒ/ or alveolar sibilant affricates /ts/, /dz/. The principal cause lies in the lingual character of all Lapponoid languages that defend against admitting velar, guttural, uvular and laryngeal explosives in Asiatic pulmonic languages. They tried to reduce them by fronting to prevelars, postalveolars, palatals, sibilant affricates and clicks. This phenomenon explains also the so-called centum-satem shift of the IE velars k, g, kw, gw to /c/, /z/ before front vowels /i/, /e/. Similar  tendencies are observed also in fronting the back vowel /u/ to central /y/ or /ü/ common in most Slavic and Gallic languages.

    The most striking trait of Lapponoid languages is the opposition of palatal and non-palatal consonants. Some authors proposed a special subscript diacritic notation with symbols ᶀ ꞔ ᶁ ᶂ ᶃ ꞕ ᶄ ᶅ ᶆ ᶇ ᶈ ᶉ ᶊ ƫ ᶌ ᶍ ᶎ. Special transcription for palatal stops is employed in Czech, Slovak, Polish, Slovene, Latvian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian and Turkish. Irish Gaelic possesses palatal consonants pj, bj, mj, fj, vj, while most Gallo-Italic dialects can do with symbols lj, nj, sj, rj beside palatals ʃ and ʒ. They are also written as ʎ ɲ ç. André Burger (1955) assumed that Proto-Romance language had employed palatals pj, bj, mj, nj, fj, βj, tj, dj, sj, kj, gj, rj and lj. The degrees of palatalisation can be ordered in a succession from prevelars, post-alveolars, alveolo-palatals to alveolars and denti-alveolars. In the Balkans such degrees are distinguished by terms of Kajkavian, Shtokavian, Chakavian and Torlakian.

    The hypotheses of Proto-Romance suppose that there occurred two principal palatalisations. The primary Romance palatalisation resulted in the shift centum ‘hundred’ > cent /sɑ̃/ and cantum ‘song’ > chant /ʃɑ̃/. This palatalisation was later followed by secondary Romance palatalisation that took place in langue d'oïl dialects, several northern Occitan dialects and Swiss Rhaeto-Romance languages. It turned /k/ and /ɡ/ before /a/ into /tʃ/, /dʒ/: Latin canis, Lombard can, French chien ‘dog’, Sursilvan casa > Vallader chasa ‘house’. The results of

primary Romance palatalisation coincide with the course of the primary Slavic palatalisation, called also iotation or yodization:

*k > *kj > *è' > *è .

*g > *gj > *dž' > *ž' > *ž .

We cannot exclude the possibility that both processes were triggered contemporaneously within the range of the same Lusatian culture.

     The leading caste of ancient Roman and medieval Italian society was represented by Atestine invaders of Hallstattian, Norican, and Sarmatian origin. The Roman Marsi, Sabini and Samnites descended from the tribes of Bavarian princely chariot-burials. If legends say that Romulus and Remus founded Rome in 753 BC, they probably imply that these army-leaders seized the Bronze Age Scythian hillfort on the Capitoline Hill and reconstructed the yonder temple devoted to the Scythian deity Saturn as a sanctuary dedicated thein deity to Mars. Mars corresponded to the Greek deity Ares while the Roman Saturn was a double-ganger of the Greek Uranos.  

    The Atestines were Epi-Sintashta Sarmatian conquerors and despite assimilation to their European farming subjects they must have maintained some residual traits of Asiatic steppe grasslanders. The common features of Uralic Estonians, Ossetes, Pamir tribes, Marcomanni and Norman Aesir were the rich variety of agglutinative locatives cases and the analytic perfect and plusquamperfect tenses. Their Italian mutations were formed by using the auxiliary verbs avere ‘to have’ and essere ‘to be’.” These auxiliaries were in the present or preterit tense joined to the main verb in the past participle form.


Map 2. The common classification of Italic dialects

Map 3. Italic Dialects with their archaeological predecessors