Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

 Systematic folkloristics




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*     Racial taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europe

*     Asia

*     Anatolia

*     Caucasus

*   Africa

*   Arabia

*     India

*     China

*     Indonesia

*     Indochina

*     Polynesia

*     Australia

*     North America

*     South America



*        Spain             France

*        Italy       Schweiz

*        Britain      Celts

*       Scandinavia  

*       Germany

*       Slavs     Balts      

*         Greece   Thrace

*        Anatolia



                     Ancient Greek Tribes

Clickable terms are red on yellow background





The Tribes of Ancient Greece

(from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018, Map 45, p. 151)









































The Ethnic Classification of Greeks


   In popular superstitions as well as in traditional linguistic studies Greeks are considered as an independent offshoot of the Indo-European family. Comparative grammar believes that about 3000 BC it split off as a domain of Proto-Greek or Hellenic in the southern Balkans. The chief argument confirming the purported ethnic unity of Greek is seen in the cultural integrity of myths and legends.1 Only few adherents of linguistic glottochronology such as R. Gray and Q. Atkinson propose hypotheses of an Anatolian Graeco-Armenian family. Apart of such attempts Greeks are standardly treated as one compact ethnic group with several synonymous denominations. Their most common name Greeks (Greek Graikoi) is generally identified with the alternative catch-word Hellenes (Greek Έλληνες) but their ethnic labels collide with conventions of Homeric ethnonymy. In his Iliad and Odyssey Homer refers to Trojan heroes as Achaeans (Ἀχαιοί, Akhaioí) and only once he mentions Panhellenes (Πανέλληνες) and Hellenes. With moderate frequency he called his own countrymen also Argives (Greek Argeioi ‘inhabitants of Argos or Argolid’) or Danaans (Δαναοί). The last term seems to correspond to the term T(D)-n-j or Danaya (Tanaju) in ancient Egyptian records.2

   In times when Europe is believed to have spoken one undifferentiated Indo-European language, it is absolutely necessary to bring back Homer’s words about regions of Greece where “the people spoke many different languages which overlapped one another”.3 Another wording of Homer’s description of Crete mentioned “language mixing with language side by side”.4 The traditional view regarding ancient Greeks as one homogeneous nation peeled freshly off Indo-Europeans is shattered to pieces when Herodotus treats Dorians and other regional minorities as ethnos5, i.e. an independent nation. This witness proved three leading guidelines governing prehistoric linguistics, (a) the principles of huge diversity instead of structural uniformity, (b) assimilative mixing instead of pure unity and (c) hybrid intertwinedness instead of compactness and organic homogeneity.

   The crucial difficulty obviously consists in the ethnic diversity of the earliest Greek inhabitants. The Pelasgian Sea Peoples (les peuples de la mer)6 had a brotherly moiety of Danaans. The tribal moieties of Argives and Mycenaeans are surmised to have derived their ethnonyms from a Mycenaean loanword for megalithic castle fortifications built by Cyclopes between 1600 and 1300 BC. Their etymology is probably paralleled by Anatolian Mysians and Ugarites, who represented the two main brotherly phratries of megalithic tumulus cultures and showed their remote Ugro-Scythian origin. Such ethnonymic pairs crop up also in the names of other megalith-builders such as Abkhaz, Basques, Scots and mythic ‘ogres’.

Most ancient tribes exhibited a long-term existence lasting for ages and evidenced tribal identity by their ethnonymy. As their ethnonyms showed incredible stability, they cannot be explained by Max Müller’s aetiologism and simple natural ad hoc etymologies. Pelasgian and Dorian were originally non-Greek foreign languages absorbed by the Greek cultural medium and secondarily Hellenised into Greek dialects. Julius Pokorny derived the etymology of Dorian from dōris, ‘woodland’ or ‘upland’7 and the tribe of Pelasgoi from *pelag-skoiFlach-landbewohner’, i.e. flatland-inhabitants settling in the flat Thessalian plain.8 Such interpretations are difficult to believe, because true etymology may be found only in age-old tribal endonyms.

   Classic Greeks called themselves Hellenes because their ethnic element won in competition with other tribal minorities. They won in social struggles thanks to the process of demotisation perceptible in Periclean Greece and the Hellenistic demotic koiné (Greek ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος). The real Hellenes never reigned over Greece as kings and dominant land-owners, they formed only the most populous core of the urban working-classes. The genuine Hellenes1 (so to say ‘Eteo-Hellenes’) seem to have drifted with Ionians and Aeolians from Anatolia after the dramatic Fall of Troy. One of their favourite stations was Epirus, the birthplace of the flood myth relating about the descent of Hellenus from Deucalion. Deucalion was compared to Noah and celebrated as a survivor of a great deluge. His sons Aeolus and Dorus acted as eponymous ancestors, they were responsible for the rise of the ethnic groups of Aeolians and Dorians. In addition, Hellenus’s third son Xuthus became father to Hellen’s grandsons Achaeus and Ion, who became progenitors of the tribes of Achaeans and Ionians.2 This story sounds like a Pro-Hellenic rendering of ethnic conditions ruling in ancient Epirus (modern Albania).

   A plausible solution of the Greek ethnic crux was foreseen by Aristotle3. He sought the cradle of Hellenes in the region Hellas (Ἑλλάς) situated in Epirus (other sources localise it in the province of Thessaly). As he saw it, the site of Deucalion’s deluge lay between Dodona and the Achelous river. His cogitations shed light also on the etymology of Grecian Graikoi. Epirus was inhabited by the tribes of Graii, whose name was used for the people of Epirus. In his opinion the ancient Illyrians applied the term Graikos to the local native Dorians.4 This means that for Illyrians the Graikoi were a native name of a Dorian tribe in Epirus and they were closely affiliated with Dorians in Sparta. This explains why the Spartan Dorians were reported to have come from Epirus and northwest regions of Thessaly.

















































Palaeolithic types

Neolithic categorisation

Anthropological races

Archaeological groups



Mycenaean Ware, globular

amphoroceramic pottery

Scythids, Argives


Cycladic 3000 BC

Mycenaean. 1450 BC


long blades/knives

Epi-Cardial Impresso Ware

palatial architecture

Pelasgids, Danaans

Sea Peoples

Palatial era 1900 BC

Minoan 1900 BC


trapezoid flakes

Black Burnished Ware

pointed-bottom vessels

Hebroid Graecians


‘Helladic’ 2800 BC



rough hand-axes

tell-sites, multi-cellular

labyrinths with flat-roofs


Hattian, Hittites

Ubaidan (6,500 BC)

Karanovo (6,200 BC)


double-axe, labrys

collective long houses

for great agrarian families

Danubian Europids

‘Idaeans’, Hektones

Eleusian cults

Phrygian longhouses


cremation burials

burial hut-urns, anthropo-

morphic face-urns

Alpinids, Albanians

Caucasian Colchids

Geometric Ware

Dark Age of Greece

Table 45. The interdisciplinary transitions of evolutionary categories in Ancient Greece

   The subcategorisation of Greek ethnicities Table 45 sketches ethnic interrelations in the general framework of Greek cultural studies. The dominant ethnicity was represented by the short-sized Hellenic Alpinids with brachycephalous skulls and cremation rituals. They formed the peaceful plebeian race of Hellenes that exhibited short-sized Lapponoid countenance with broad round heads, short legs and concave noses. They had nothing to do with the Dorian militant slave-holders or the proud aristocratic Achaeans residing in unconquerable castles. The Illyrian myths about the descent of Achaeans and Dorians from Hellenes could reflect only their local social prevalence in Epirus but this hierarchy of castes could not be generalised as valid for the rest of Greece.

   The Ancient Greek society was composed of several heterogeneous components and their analytic decomposition has to start from the earliest Palaeolithic beginnings. Table 46 sketches a handy ethnic typology tracing Greek plantations back to the Neolithic peasantry and autochthonous prehistoric plant-gatherers. Their Eleusinian mysteries had much to do with Minoan cults in Crete and Adoniac rites in Syria. Owing to great antiquity they lacked an appropriate ethnonymic denomination. Their ritual centres nevertheless suggest association with the mythical races of Hektones (< Goth, Hat-), Idaeans (Goth, *Yad-) and Eleusians (< Elis, Illion, Elam). The advent of Pelasgians may be related to Aurignacians (36 000 BC) but their cultural hegemony culminated with the Minoan palatial architecture about 1900 BC. In the mid-2nd millennium BC their cultural leadership was replaced by Mycenaean and Argive cyclopes, Titanids with Minyan ware and Achaeans of Anatolian provenience. It is an apparent misnomer to classify their military and economic rule as Helladic cultures because the genuine Hellenes migrated from Anatolia after the Fall of Troy (1184 BC).


Specific cultural differences




huts on lacustrine and lakeside platforms, post-dwellings, stilt-dwellings, columnal architecture with arcades and porticos, twin myths, eating mush out of ground acorns, Apolline cults, 1900-1450 BC




cupolar beehive dwellings and sepulchres (both called tholoi) with a horizontal entrance (prodromos), circular meeting-place, training-ground and town-hall (agora), Mycenaean ware with tall globular amphorae and high handles, 1600 BC




Titanids, Minyan ware with monochromous black or grey burnished/polished pottery, shaft graves with a vertical well and horizontal corridors, burials on side benches in niches, 1550 BC




chthonic cults of Mother Earth and Father Heaven, bull-fighting and bull-leaping, multi-roomed labyrinth houses on artificial tell mounds formed by the periodic burning of dwellings due to the practices of shifting agriculture, Eleusinian mysteries




land-owning aristocracy, fortified castles and strongholds, acropoleis on high promontories over a river, cults of war-god Ares, Areopagus (senate and council of elders), heroic epic in hexameters, 1300 BC




short-sized and brachycephalous Lapponoid physiology, artisan professions of potters and shoe-makers, cremation burials with face-urns on columns or hut-urns in columbaria, Dipylon vases and urns with key ornaments and Geometric Ware patterns, folklore with trickster fables and mendicant carols, iambic poetry with logaedic verses, arrival after 1100 BC).

Table 46. The cultural typology of Greek tribes










































Greek Divine Genealogies


In ancient Greek legends the first celestial divinities were Aether, Uranos, Cronos and Zeus. Their divine family started from Chaos, who gave birth to Erebos (Underworld) and Nyx (Night). Their son was Aether, Αἰθήρ, who is interpreted as ‘air’ or ‘upper sky’ lying over the air ἀήρ. “From Chaos came forth Erebus and black Night; but of Night were born Aether and Day, whom she conceived and bare from union in love with Erebus.1 Aether had his own cults and seems to be the first real ethnic reference to the Boeotian mythical Hektones, who were dubbed and erroneously nicknamed Hecatoncheires (Hundred-Handed Ones).

In some myths Aether’s took to wife the ‘wide-bosomed Gaia or Γῆ (Earth), a Greek equivalent of the Roman Terra. They represented the first generation of gods corresponding to the Egyptian couple Nut (Sky) and Geb (Earth). Such cults of Mother Earth indicated the primordial role of Neolithic farmers associated with the advent of Anatolian tribes to Greece. In Hesiods Theogony Gaia conceived her progeny by parthenogenesis and claimed to be mother to three Gigantes and Hecatoncheires: Cottus, Briareos and Gyges.

In his Works and Days Hesiod collected fragmentary popular myths into a connected chronology that served as a germ for beginnings of Greek historiography. Its backbone introduced periodisation into epochs of the Golden and Silver Age. In his account Gaia bare her son Uranos (starry Heaven), who symbolised the Bronze Age. He was hated as a procreator of the evil Cyclopes. They made weapons out of alloys of copper with tin and flooded Greece with ‘Cyclopean stones’. Their rule ended when they were substituted by the Titans. Uranos married his mother Gaia and fathered Cronos, who overthrew his reign on the Olympian throne. His takeover proceeded as a violent overturn. Cronos conspired with his mother Gaia and agreed to unman his parent Uranos. Uranos was castrated by a sickle and drops of bloods falling down from his testicles gave birth to new races. Out of his blood came two races of nymphs, the Erinyes (Furies) and the Meliai. Notwithstanding, the ascent of Cronos brought prosperity and rich harvesting. So his rule was welcomed and remembered as the Golden Age (chrýseon génos).

   Cronos fell in love with his sister Rhea, took her to wife, and they together bare their son Zeus. When Zeus was a little boy, Rhea hid him away from Cronos lest he were abused by his father. Zeus contrived against Cronos and kicked up a riot that ended with jailing Cronos in Tartarus. Their conflict was described in the lost epic Titanomachia composed by Eumelus of Corinth. At first Zeus’ government in Olympos provided flowering designated as the Silver Age (argirón génos) but later among people there arose discontent and riots that were punished by the Ogygian Deluge.

Such family quarrels contained a lot of fabled superstitions but mixed with grains of historical truth. They were described as events that occurred in the royal dynasty reigning on Olympos. It served as a sacred mount with cultic groves visited by pilgrims on ritual occasions. It acted as the seat of Greek Pantheon worshipped by the Anatolian peasants. It intermingled all Greek deities into a personal union and one large family of in-laws although it was clear that they descended from different clans, ethnic factions and racial minorities. Like all royal dynasties they closed exogamous marriage contracts with opposite tribes in order to befriend them as allies. In mythological optics all legendary heroes were depicted as giants because they were seen from the dwarfish perspective of short-sized Hellenes. In fact, among these tribal groups there were permanent cruel wars raging. Epic poetry reported their course as civil rebellions of Theomachy, Gigantomachy and Titanomachy. Their accidents bore resemblance to customs ruling in Hebroid countries of the Near East. Sons were abused by their fathers, and when they grew up, they revolted. They castrated their direct progenitor and got hold of his throne.


Archaeological culture


Mythic race




Karanovo 6200-5500 BC

Gaia (Earth)


pithoi graves

Dilmun Eden



Thessalian Dimini and

Sesklo cultures 4400 BC





Chaos (Void)



Cycladic 3000 BC

Mycenaean 1450 BC





tholoi graves



Helladic 2800 BC

Minyan 1600 BC






shaft graves






pithoi graves




Eleusian cults









Palatial period 1900 BC





Sea People


Bile, Leucos


Geometric Ware 1150 BC





 Table 47. The subcategorisation of Ancient Greek cultural and mythological cycles




   The real historical background of such motifs must be reconstructed by turning aside familial skirmishes and focusing on tribal groups. The first autochthones in ancient Greece were Elamitoid harbingers of Neolithic agriculture, who came from Anatolia between 7000 and 6500 BC. Their land-tilling advances were announced by the Dimini and Sesklo culture remarkable for painted vessels with abstract patterns. Their ceramic style was developed especially in eastern Thessaly and Epirus. Its artifacts were excavated abundantly in Cakran in Albania. The Neolithic scene documented that there were two agrarian cultures overlapping. On one hand, there were tell-sites with flat-roof multi-roomed labyrinths and chessboard pottery jutting out of Anatolia to the Karanovo culture in Bulgaria and, on the other hand, there were Danubian longhouses with spiral ornamentation that evidenced expansion as far as Phrygia. The ethnonyms of both groups of Neolithic farmers must have read as derivations of Gothoid Guttians, Heteans, Hittim, and Hittites. Their spelling echoed in the name of Hektones and also the Hecatoncheires, Ἑκατόγχειρες. Their Latinised form was Centimanes and literally meant ‘Hundred-Handed Ones’. It referred to a triplet of heroes called Briareos, Kottos and Gyges. They were all begotten by goddess Gaia worshipped by Greeks as Mother Earth and known to Romans under her Latin name Terra. Their name was composed of two parts, hekaton ‘hundred’ and χείρ, cheir ‘hand’. They allegedly had ‘a hundred hands and fifty heads’, which sounds more probable than an alternative phrase ‘each had a hundred arms and fifty heads’.

 The spelling Hecatoncheires evidently arose as a false popular contortion of the correct spelling Hektones. Popular fantasies depicted them as giant monsters instead of conveying the veritable communication that they lived in collective longhouses inhabited by a great families with as many as a hundred relatives, as it was common among the Neolithic Linear Ware farmers. They must have looked like Danubian Nordids and amazing notices concerning their giant or gigantic figure mirrored only the fact that the Neolithic farmers were tall dolichocephals of robust and strong figure. So it was no wonder that neighbours described them as three giants of great strength.

 Hesiod’s Theogony maintained that Uranos was conceived by Gaia alone,1 but other sources reported that his real father was Aether. 2 The etymology of Gyges stemmed from the compound ‘earth-born’. Some Classic and Hellenistic pictures and statuettes depicted Gigantes as chthonic earth-born creatures that crept out of volcanoes or other holes in the earth and had snakes instead of legs. As seen in the Minoan figurines of a snake goddess with the crown of hair swarming with snakes, serpents symbolised subterrestrial servants of the Mother Earth. Neolithic peasantry revered serpents as their tribal totemistic symbols and chthonic tutelary spirits. “Archaic and Classical representations show Gigantes as man-sized hoplites (heavily armed ancient Greek foot soldiers) fully human in form.”3 Hoplites were middle-class farmers, who did not possess horses, so they had to fight with common foot soldiers.

Myths about Gigantomachia left many unclarities but looked like legends about peasants’ rebellions waging a civil war against the oppression of Olympian gods. Some authors made it clear that Gigantes revolted against Titanids and took part in Titanomachia. Other notices suggest that they were born from drops of blood falling down to the earth after the castration of Uranos. The general impression implies that their tribal deities were Aether, Zeus, Demeter and Persephone. At last the giants’ revolt was vanquished and their dead bodies were buries under volcanoes.

The first alien invaders of ancient Greece were Cyclopes, whose procreator and tutelary divinity was Uranos. He was a sky tribal deity of Scythoid kurgan-builders related to the Vedic god Váruṇa, his Mitanni twin Aruna and Zoroastric Ahriman. He was feared as a cruel god of the starry night sky. He engendered the first generation of one-eyed giant Cyclopes, whose names were Brontes (Thunder), Steropes (Lightning) and Arges (Bright). Mycenaean tholos-builders were called Cyclopes, which literally means ‘circle-eyedor ‘round-eyed’. The myths of one-eyed Cyclopes originated thanks to their custom to blind and unsight slaves beaten in combats and personal duels. Their original homeland was in the Caucasus inhabited by their Abkhaz tribesmen. In Caucasian stories “the cyclops is almost always a shepherd, and he is also variously presented as a one-eyed, rock-throwing, cannibalistic giant, who says his name is ‘nobody, who lives in a cave, whose door is blocked by a large stone, who is a threat to the hero of the story, who is blinded by a hot stake, and whose flock of sheep is stolen by the hero and his men. These motifs are also found in the cyclops stories of Homer, Euripides, and Hesiod.”4

Cyclopes intimidated their neighbours as robust one-eyed giants indulging in building large megalith    constructions called ‘Cyclopean stones and ‘Cyclopean wallstones. Their architecture was remarkable for drystone walls, copula-shaped roofs and vaulted ceilings. In Mycenae their style was demonstrated by the Lions Gate symbolising their feline and leonine cults. In Egyptian feline sphinges guarded entrance into pyramids while in ancient Peru the same service was entrusted to sculptures of Jaguars. Their supreme god was brother to the Egyptian son-god Ra, represented as the triangle with an all-seeing eye of providence. Their geometry was based on the incidence of sunbeams and their magic witchcraft on evil-eye charms. Their remote relatives were Mesopotamian Urukans, who depicted their kings and gods with accented binocular eye-orbits. On the other hand, their invasion (3000 BC) in the Cyclades developed a culture of blind eyeless statues.

An additional criterion of ethnic classification may be found in residual consonantal nominal stems and plurals (Table 48). Ancient Greek nouns had Sarmatoid t/d-stems, Abkhazo-Median m/nk/k-stems, Turcoid r-stems, Lydian l-stems and Hellenic o-stems with i/oi-plurals. Such stems predefine their classification.

    GREEKS ® k-Cyclopes + i-Hellenes + r-Dorians + l-Pelasgians

l-Pelasgians ® Paeones,  Pelasgiotes + Danaïdes + Karoi + Leleges

r-Dorians ®  Doroi,  Tauroi + Kimmerioi + Greeks, Geryones

k-Cyclopes ®  Thracians + Bessoi, Mysioi, Mosxoi

i-Hellenes ® Galatians, Hellenes + Ionoi (< *Jav/Alban) + Aeolians Aetolians (<  *Ant)

Table 48. Greek ethnicities classified by stems and plural endings 





The Cimbroid Graecians


  Greek myths assume that the earliest autochthones of Boeotia were the Hectenes or Ectenes, probably belonging to the earliest race of Neolithic farmers (Eteo-Cretans, Hatti, Hittim, Gutti, Etio). They represented an antediluvial culture similar to the inhabitants of Eridu in Mesopotamia. The next population to come after the world flood were the Graecians (Γραικοί), people who were rescued by the Greek Noahs in his ark. Such saviours of Greece appeared in several tribal myths narrating about the flood of Ogyges, the flood of Deucalion, and the flood of Dardanus. Stories of the great world deluge were related in many countries and in all regions their authors were Cimbrian or Cimbroid seafarers. The Hebrews believed in the myth depicting Noah, champion of the Noachian deluge and the Sumerians in Kish saw such a rescuer of humankind after the world flood in Utnapishtim. The inhabitants of Shuruppak had their own world flood champion Ziusudra and the Akkadians attributed the same role to their hero Atrahasis. In ancient India humankind owed their salvation to the first man Manu, who procreated the human race after a huge tsunami wave. A similar story was told also by the Kimbern, the Cimbrian mariners in the northern tip of Jutland.

In ancient Greece there were several versions of these flood myths circulating and all of them linked Greeks to the archaic nationalities of Graikoi and Titanids. A tribe of Graecians was settled in Epirus (today’s Albania) and attributed the role of Noah to the marital couple of Deucalion and Pyrrha. They saved their lives by building a chest of wood. Deucalion’s son Hellenus was venerated as the forefather of Hellenes in the district of Hellas located in Thessaly. When enquiring into their ethnic roots, Aristotle remarked that the Hellenes were originally called Graeci (Graikoi ‘Greeks’)1 settled as a tribe in Epirus. He situated their seats between Dodona and the Achelous River, the assumed locality of Deucalion’s great deluge.

   Sextus Africanus found out that people in Boeotia derived their origin from the mythological ruler Ogyges, who became hero thanks to his lifesaving role in the Ogygian deluge.2 Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, maintained that that Ogyges belonged to the stock of Titans.3 A local myth mentioned a hero Graecos as an inhabitant of Γραία (Graia), a little town on the coast of Boeotia. A descendant of his stock was seen also in Minyas, the legendary founder of the Boeotian city-state Orchomenos. The local Minyan Ware installed the Early Helladic tradition of dark burnished pottery typical of most Cimbroid colonies in the Near East. The flood myth made appearance also in the region Graiki in Attica but it is not certain whether it concerned an independent locality or only the afore-mentioned Boeotian part of Attica. The role of the first man who survived the Poseidon’s tsunami was entrusted to the mythic king Cecrops here. The citizens of Graia must have been aware of their distant Cimbrian descent because when they colonised Italy about 900 BC, they relentlessly searched for the ancient settlement of Cimbrian pirates in Cumae close to Naples. To sum it up, Greece was dismembered into many small tribal district, each region of farmers had its own Olympos, each region of Graecoids its flood myth, posthumous Acheron river and its own necropolis Tartarus. 

   The Bronze Age archaeology of ancient Greece began with the Early Helladic I (EH I) dated to c. 2800-2500 BC. Its cultural style was remarkable for dark burnished pottery that copied the shapes of shallow open metallic bowls and endeavoured to imitate their grey metallic polish. The German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann associated such ceramics with sites excavated in Orchomenos and coined for their peculiarities the term Minyan Ware. Its name hinted at the legendary king Minyas, who founded Orchomenus and installed a powerful ruling dynasty in Boeotia. The semantic extension of Minyans roughly corresponded to the nationality of mythic Graikoi, because Herodotus spoke about Minyans as a full-fledged autochthnous tribe that attempted to liberate Greece from the Pelasgian supremacy. He recalled that Pelasgians were driven out Attica and took vengeance by driving the Minyans out of the isle Lemnos.4 He also reported about a tribe of Minyans from Amyklai in the south of Peloponnesus, who colonised the island of Thera around 800 BC. This remark might induce us to identify Minyans with Doric tribes, but this is contradicted by tidings about their fights with the Doric forefather Heracles. Heracles freed Thebans from paying tribute to Minyans, defeated them as enemies and ordered them to pay tribute to Thebans. This implies that Helladic Graecoids recruited from Hebroid drylanders, while Dorians were descendants of Titanids born from Punoid coastlanders.

  Graecoids. Irrespective of how close the relation of Minyans to the Graikoi might be, the cultural morphology of Minyans in the Early Helladic period exhibited strong similarity to Natufian sites in Jericho. Both civilisations have come a long way from gazelle hunting to goat herding and from cave dwelling to abodes made of stone towers. Both were heirs to the diaspora of Microlithic cultures in the Mesolithic (12,000-10,000 BC) and both joined the pastoralist branch of Cimbrians. This transition from fishing to small-game hunting and herding goats was probably due to assimilative acculturation to Levantine Epi-Mousterians. It was them who gave Hebroids the typical Semitic physiognomy with aquiline noses peculiar to Jews, Armenians and Assyrian phenotypes. Another Scythoid contribution imported by Hebroids to Greece were circular and apsidal towers abundant at the Jericho site. Mutations affected especially the Natufian and Hebrew settlers, while the Kebaran and Phoenician culture remained relatively untouched and uninterruptedly developed archaic traditions of fishermen.

    Titanids. Such differentiation affected also microlithic cultures and Turcoid tribes in the Middle East. Their mainstream remained faithful to fishing economy and aggregated into the core of the Sea Peoples in the Mediterranean waters. Their earliest ancestors were probably the Ichthyophagi, who caught fish on the coasts of the Red Sea and Iranian Gedrosia. Their descendants became seafaring pirates (Phoenicians, Punics, Etruscans), mastered secrets of metallurgy and accumulated immense treasures of gold by robbing sails of honest merchants. The bad repute of feared buccaneers, who live on maritime piracy, adorned especially the tribes of Phoenicians, Etruscans, Cretan Dorians, Cydonians, Lycians and Cilicians. Thanks to the custom of hoarding treasures of silver and gold, they later evolved into the influential social class of merchants, bankers, usurers and urban patricians. 

    The Greek Titanids must have been their remote relatives, because Poseidon was a Titanid holding control over the oceans. Their fishing techniques did not use angling but Poseidons trident fishspear resemblant to the three-pronged fishing spear leister of Germanic Teutons. This manner of fishing suggests consanguinity with the northern bog-people with pointed-bottom pottery and the Y-haplogroup R1a. Their affinity to the Red Sea Ichthyophagi lack convincing proofs because the latter are usually depicted with single-pronged fishing spears.   

    The Turcoid native cradleland lay somewhere in the Altai Mountains and its Microlithic industry came into being as a side splinter of the Denisovan Leptolithic flake-tools cultivated by ancestors of Tungusoid fishers. The race of Turanids took to living in rock shelters in caves or under rock overhangs and fishing in Trans-Caspian marshlands. Greek Graecians and Dorians originally made their living by herding. The former were Graecoids, who sprang from Hebrew drylanders with burnished ware and Y-haplogroup R1b.



Cimbrians (microlithic ware, goat herding, round stone towers and semicircular horseshoe apsidas, grey burnished ware in imitation of metallic bowls, sickles inlaid with microlith blades, water wells and tsenotes with hoards, three-pronged fishing spear, Poseidon’s trident, Germanic Teutons’ leister, fallic cults, terminal milestones hermai, artificial pederasty, abusing page-boys for fellation.  

Graecoids (round stone towers, horseshoe apsidas, grey burnished ware),

▪ Titans (< Typhon, Taautus, Teutones) [Thessaly, Mount Othrys, Mount Sipylus], Iapetids, Atlantids, Hyperionides (< Cimbrians?), ten-year Titanomachy on Mount Othrys.

▪ Graecians (Γραικοί) in Boeotia, Epirus and Thessaly, Ogygians, Thebans, Minyans [Boeotia, Orchomenus, Lemnos, Amycles, Thera],

  Dorians [Doris, Sparta in Laconia, eastern Crete], Heracleidae (Heracleids),

▪ Cydonians (< Cydon, son of Hermes, Chanians [northwestern Crete], Lemnians, Rutuli (king Turnus, Juturna, goddess of fountains, Fontus, god of wells) [Latium], Etruscans-Tyrrhēnioi), (Latin Mercurius = Etruscan Turms), Hermeides (< Hermes) [Arcadia, Mount Cyllene, Cyprus, Cilicia], the Harpies (Iris, Celaeno), Cypriotes (< Cimbrians), Arcado-Cypriotes, caduceus (kerykeion), phallic statuettes, milestones hermai.

▪ Geryonides (cliff-dwellers, pirates, submarine caves, shaft graves), deities Typhon (Τυφών, Typhaeus), Lernaean Hydra [Lycia, Mount Etna], Chimaera (< Greek χίμαρος ‘she-goat’) [Corinth, Lycia, Cilicia], Gorgon, Scylla [Lipari Islands, Isthmia, Corinth, Bosphorus Strait].

Table 50. A classification of Greek Cimbroids

   The Early Helladic population lived in circular stone houses reminiscent of round houses in Jericho. In Orchomenos archaeologists dug out a site with round houses that dated back to the Early Bronze Age (2800-1900 BC). They were built as stone towers amounting to two to six meters in diameter. In later time they formed apsidal chambers. They were constructed like early Christian churches with a semicircular or horseshoe-shaped apsida for the altar or the saint patron’s icon. The apsida (Greek αψις, hapsis, Latin apsis) is actually a circular niche or a horseshoe exedra formed by a hollowing in the wall for laying aside some precious valuables. It had also a round or semicircular ceiling called conch (Greek konché).

   The population of Ancient Greece consisted of two ethnicities descending from Mesolithic microlith cultures, the Dorian and Graecoid drylanders and the sea people of Titanids headed by Cronos and Poseidon. The former branch developed from the Kebaran and Natufian Microlithic in the Levant but underwent a metamorphosis due to the impact of the Tabunian culture with the prevalence of Semitic and Armenoid types with aquiline nasal profiles. Owing to their influence The Natufian settlers began to build horseshoe-shaped towers with growing out of subterrestrial understructure. This style reappeared in the Greek Early Helladic I period (EHI) and its excavations denoted as ‘Eutresis culture. At the site of Korakou it was characterized by horseshoe-shaped towers and burnished or red slipped pottery. Natufians represented a Levantine mutation of microlith cultures peculiar to Hebroids and Hebrew people. The dominant racial types in Greece are denotable as Graecoids derived from the Helladic I and Levantine Hebroids.


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, Prague 2018,

pp. 145-155.











1 Tacit, Germ. 2.

2 Jacob Grimm: Deutsche Mythologie Göttingen, 1835.

3 William Stubbs: Constitutional History of England, I, 1880, p. 38.

4 Friedrich Maurer: Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprach-geschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde. Bern: A. Francke, [1942], 1952, pp. 123-126.

5 Tacit, Germ. 2.

6 Plinius, Naturalis historia 37, 35; Ptolemaeus 2, 11, 9.

7 Plinius, Naturalis historia 4, 100.

1  Plinius, Naturalis historia I, 1.

2  Friedrich Maurer: Nordgermanen und Alemannen: Studien zur germanischen und frühdeutschen Sprach-geschichte, Stammes- und Volkskunde. Bern: A. Francke, 1952, pp. 175-178.

1 Ferdinand Wrede: Ingwäonisch und Westgermanisch. Zeitschrift für deutsche Mundarten, 1924: 270-283; V. M. Zhirmunski: Deutsche Mundartkunde. Berlin 1962.

2 Carol Henriksen – Johan van der Auwera: 1. The Germanic Languages. In:  Johan van der Auwera,  ed. The Germanic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 1994, 2013, pp. 1-18. p. 9.

3 Ferdinand Wrede: Ingwäonisch und Westgermanisch. Zeitschrift für deutsche Mundarten, 1924: 270-283; T. Frings: Grundlegung einer Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. Halle 1957.; V. M. Zhirmunski: Deutsche Mundartkunde. Berlin 1962, p. 50-51.

4 Strabo, Geography 7.2.2; Diodorus Siculus, Bibl.5.32.4; Plutarch, Vit.Mar. 11.11.



1 Anthony D. Smith:  Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford Univ. Press, 1999.

2  Jorrit M. Kelder: The Egyptian Interest in Mycenaean Greece. JEOL (Jaarbericht Ex Oriente Lux), 2010, pp. 125–140.

3 Homer: Odyssey, book XIX, line 175-177.

4 Op. cit., book XIX, line 176.

5 Herodotus: The Histories, book VII, section 73.

6 Edward Lipinsky: Peuples de la mer, Phéniciens, Puniques: Etudes d'épigraphie et d'histoire méditerranéenne. Peeters, Louvin, 2015.

7 Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1959; English edition: Indo-European Etymological Dictionary, Leiden University 2002, pp. 214-217.

8 Op. cit., pp. 831-832.

1  Antonios Hatzis: Elle, Hellas, Hellene. Athens 1935–1936.

2  Hesiod, Catalogue of Women, frr. 9, 10(a) OCT.

3  Aristotle, Meteorologica I, xiv.

4 Panagiotis Christou: The Adventures of the National Names of the Greeks. Thessalonike, 1964; J. Juthner: Hellenen und Barbaren. Leipzig, 1923.

1 Hesiod, Theogony, book XIX, line 176.

1 Hesiod, Theogony, 124–125.

2 Timothy Gantz: Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources. Johns Hopkins Press, 1996, p. 4.

3 Timothy Gantz: Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources I-II. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, pp. 446, 447.

4 David Hunt: Legends of the Caucasus. London: Saqi Books, 2012, p. 220;

1 Aristotle, Meteorologica I. xiv.

2 Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 10, 10.

3 Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, Apologia ad Autolycum.

4 Herodotus, Historiai, I, 57; II, 51, 7-12.