Indo-European origins naturally fall in
with the rise of the Nordic and Caucasoid tall white-skinned dolichocephals. It can be dated back neither to the
Neolithic nor to the Campignian Litorids
(approximate estimate is 10,000 BC), whose birth must have preceded that of
Japanese Jomonians (13,000 BC or even 16,000 BP).
The dating of the European axe-tool Macrolithic and
Micoquian elongated hand-axes (130,000 BP) does not
seem to be sufficient, either. The unity of all boreal northern dolichocephalic hand-axe people may approach to the Acheulean horizon close to 500,000 BP. The earliest
forefathers of all Nordids and Europids
can be seen in Micoquians. The probable ancestors
of all Caucasoids (western Gothids
and eastern Gothonids) may be sought in Acheuleans or their Yabroudian
Epi-Acheulean Macrolithic axe-tool makers → Ethiopids + Gothonids + Gothids + Getids
Gothids → Scando-Gothids
+ Norico-Gothids + Dano-Gothids
+ Ibero-Gothids + Britano-Gothids.
Epi-Micoquian Getids → Daco-Getids
+ Anatolo-Getids+ Irano-Getids
Afro-Gothonids → Ethiopids + Aigyptoids + …
Gothids: Eurasian Nordic dolichocephals with macrolithic
axes and s-plurals
Scando-Gothid: Homo s. eu. gothicus, Gotho-Frisians with the Corded Ware culture and the
Exo-Gothids (their derived forms retained Y-hg I1 but departed for Britain and eastern Eurasia): Anglo-Saxons, Juto-Frisians, Yotvingo-Prussians,
Geto- Dacians (Balkans),
Geto-Persians (Iran), Khattri-Brahmans (India).
Norico-Gothid: Homo s. eu. danubianus, Langobardians (Buri, Langiones, Quadi)
with the Danubian
Culture and the Y-hg I2, fertile alluvial lowlands, longhouses in riverside
s. eu. rugianus, Rugian Funnel Beaker culture, TBK, Reihengräber, row graves.
Ibero-Gothid: Franco-Swabians with
the Bell Beaker culture and shell midden dumps on
Britano-Gothid: Homo s. eu. britanicus, British and
Scandinavian long barrows with long heads.
Daco-Getid: Homo s. eu. balcanicus: Getae/Getai, Cotesii,
Anatolo-Getid: Homo s. eu. anatolicus, Phrygians, Abrettene,
(Anatolian longhouses, cults of Zeus on
Ida Mons and Olympus Mons).
Irano-Getid: Homo s. eu. getopersicus, Geto-Persian, (Massa)getae,
Irano-Gothonids: arid dryland agriculture, tell-sites on artificial
mounds, flat-roofed multi-roomed labyrinths, bull worship, bull fighting,
bull leaping, ergative constructions, b-plurals.
Anatolo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. anatolicus,
Hattians, Hittites, Hethites,
Georgo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. georgicus, Georgians, Mingrelians.
Elamo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. elamiticus, Elamites, Susians, Gutii.
Indo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. indicus
et dravidicus, Gadaba,
Afro-Gothonids: Epi-Acheulean plant-gatherers, arid oasis horticulture,
flat-roofed multi-roomed labyrinths, bull worship, bull fighting, bull
leaping, ritual initiation of boys leaping over bulls’ heads.
Cretan Gothonid: Homo s. e. creticus: Cretans with idols of boucrania, taurokathapsia
Ethiopian Gothonid: Homo s. e. aethiopicus,
bull cults, bull-leaping.
Aigyptoids: Egyptian agriculturalists fellahs, cults of the sacred bull Apis.
Elymes, bull sacrifice taurobolium
to Magna Mater.
Spanish Elamitoids: bull-fighters toreros, bull-leaping recortes
West Sudanese Gothonids:
bull-leaping rituals, leaping over bulls’ heads.
Table 25. Genuine
Indo-European tribes stemming from the Acheulean
The genuine core of Indo-European people was formed by the racial
varieties of tall dolichocephals, who are
traditionally classified as Nordids, Europids and Caucasoids.
However, their designation is not very fortunate and fitting for a lot of
terminological reasons. They can be renamed as the Gothonic
nations of Acheulean origin, who later split into
branches of European Gothids and Asiatic Gothonids. The Caucasus has been a multinational area since time immemorial and Nordids share a lot of traits with Scandinavian tall
robust and red-haired megalith-builders. Terms hinting at the etymology of
the European and African continent are not eligible, either, because they are
derived from the Hebrew ethnonymic root Abram-/Iber-/Cimbr-. Asiatic Gothonids
(Hattians, Hittites, Hethites,
Gutians, Kota, Gadaba) encroached also on the ethnonymy
of South and East Europe. They are known up to now as bull-idolaters, bull-adorers with the Y-haplogroups J1 and J2. Their Mediterranean colonies
include Spanish bull-fighters, Valencian
bull-leaping recortes, Gasconian
bull-leapers (sauteurs and écarteurs), Cretan bull-leapers and Abyssinian
bull-walkers. Their bull worship was associated with ritual sacrifices of
bulls and initiation rites for young age-classes. They were common also in Cameroon
and West Sudan. They ordered adolescent youths to walk over the backs of an aligned
row of bulls. An enumerative delimitation of Eteo-Gothonids
is given in the list of their basic varieties (Table 25).
The demographic prevalence of Gothids and Gothonids in the
European continent was challenged by a number of Asiatic tribes, who
infiltrated their settlements from the east and soon naturalised their hosts
in the new environment. They arrived in Europe with Aurignacians, Magdalenians, Maglemosians, Gravettians and Hallstattians.
Before their advent European axe-tool makers shared their land with several
races of Asiatic flake-tool cultures: Clactonians, Levallosians and Mousterians. Paleoanthropology sections them into the Early Gracile Neanderthalers and the
Classic Crude Robust Neanderthalers.
This division corresponded to difference between Levalloisian flakes knapped
from a well-prepared platform and Mousterian retouched bifaces.
In the Upper Palaeolithic the Levalloisians
resorted to Leptolithic long prismatic knives and
the Mousterians to leaf-shaped lance-head
projectiles. The Eteo-European axe-tool making
tradition later crystallised into Macrolithic
industry and the stock of autochthonous Gothids. Gothids formed autochthonous axe-tool makers with blood
group O and Y-haplogroups I1, I2. Asiatic invaders
imported the blood group B and Siberian Y-haplotype
C, Q, R, N.
Table 26. The tribal ethnonymy of Gothonic tribes
25 recommends to designate the genuine core of Europoids
as Gothids and subsume the family of
(pre)agriculturalist Caucasoids under the label of Gothonids. It demonstrates their parallels in the names
of chief tribal moieties and phratries. The
decisive criterion for judging their genetic consanguinity and common origin
is found in the resemblance of their ethnonymy.
reliable guideline for ethnic differentiation in the Germanic area is
provided by plural formation. In English, Frisian, West Flemish and the Lower Saxon Germanic dialects plurals are formed
by adding the suffix -s. The traditional account of s-plurals
considers these plural suffixes as a direct continuation of the IE *-s
due to lack of rhotacism. In Scandinavia the Norwegian
and Swedish plurals in -er, -or
allegedly originated from -s by means of rhotacism.
In our view we had better explain r-plurals as a foreign inorganic
intrusion imported by microlith cultures from
Altaic languages. In the German pluralisation Buch – Bücher the infiltration of r-plurals
is accompanied by three Altaic traits that prove the Turcoid
origin of Cimbrians: import of front rounded
vowels, Umlaut alternation and vowel synharmony
correlating back rounded vowels to their respective front rounded
counterparts. The genuine Eteo-Germanics comprised
only Herminones composed from Cimbrian and Teutonic tribes reinforcing Altaic r-plurals.
The true heirs of Indo-European autochthons were only Istvaeonic
and Ingvaeonic/Ingaevonic tribes that retained the
Anglo-Saxon and West
Frisian plurals in -s witnessed that Ingaevonic
dialects defended old nominal pluralisation and
felt hostility to umlaut r-plurals. This IE heritage was anxiously
protected also by Istvaeonic
tribes operating in the south. They coincided with the Bell Beaker Folk,
whose migrations ranged from France to Spain and Portugal.
Their areas were less disrupted by Germanic colonisations but coped with
another rival represented by the Romance vocalic pluralisation.
Portuguese, Spanish and French reinforced the original Gothoid
s-plurals, while the rest of Romance family lost them or reduced their
number. Latin, Italian and Rumanian mostly abandoned s-pluralisation under the pressure of Gallisation
insisting on Epi-Gravettian o-stems and a-stems.
A significant part of the Lower Saxon Germanic
dialects retained s-pluralisation and
keeps its continuity in Standard Dutch and
West Flemish. However, in the northern Scandinavian domain the plural ending -en
gains more and more ground. Its hegemonistic
position is probably due to the strong ethnic substratum of megalith-building
The complex of B-Celtic family can be defined as a group of Non-Celtic, Pseudo-Celtic
or Allo-Celtic languages that refuse African
labiovelars as alien phonemes defying their phonologic repertory. The group
of B-Celtic languages is referred to as Brittonic, although it is not their typical
representative and their core encompasses several Non-Indo-European dialects.
The genuine Brittonic element is strongest in
tribes burying in long barrows, and its traits considerably differ from
Welsh, Cornish and Cumbric that are traditionally
included in the B-Celtic complex. They were
probably imported by Asiatic invaders of Sarmatoid
and Turcoid stamp because in their consonantism the opposition of fortis-lenis
stops plays a more decisive role than the correlation of voiced and voiceless
sounds. What qualified them all as members of the B-Celtic family was just
the lack of labiovelar consonants. In fact, they were reluctant also to
accepting other Africanisms, prenasalisation
and postnasalisation, nasal vowels, tonal
accentuation, melodic intonation and the opposition of habitual and progressive
Although there exist no firm
boundaries dividing Eteo-Celts from Pseudo-Celts,
we can partition the latter group into three factions:
Epi-Aterian and Epi-Solutrean
ancestors of Baskids and other megalith builders,
(800 BC) with horseback-riding cavalry and chariot burials.
Mesolithic Turanids with rock shelters, rock
paintings and rock-cut caves,
Epi-Aurignacian and Epi-Levalloisian
Tungids with lake-dwellings and row alignments
and other types of standing stones,
Gothonids with long dolichocephalic
1. Basco-Dinarids: tall round-headed brachycephals with convex aquiline noses.
Iberian Vascones, Basques, Spanish
1b. Ogres: Atlantic folktale ogres (Scots, Picts, Scandinavians, Varangians),
who lived in broch castles and buried their dead in
round cairns. Their funerary rites required mummification,
anointment, burial shrouds and wrapping the dead corpse by a long piece of
cloth. They celebrated solstice festivals in circular henges,
had sessions at round tables and kept cattle in cylindrical enclosures
(kraals). Their dolmens consisted of two upright stones covered by a capstone
slab and served as an opening into a subterranean cairn.
2. Norids: mutated
types of Danubian herders, eastern Sarmatids and Uralids with flat
2a. Sarmatids: Hallstattian settlers (800 BC), who extended Sarmatian chariot burials from the Volga river basin to Romania, Moravia and Italy. Their raiders included the Italic
tribes of Marsi, Boii,
Osci and Volsci.
Their belligerent files comprised also Scandinavian
Æsir and Normans and were responsible for
the spreading the Romanesque defensive, residential and sacral architecture.
Their description as dolichocephalic Nordids and Aryans is misleading.
2b. Eteo-Norids: taller meso-
and brachycephals with flat faces and high
3. Turanids: imported from Central Asia by Mesolithic cultures with microlith implements. They were remarkable for mesocephaly, high narrow faces, smaller hands and feet, leptorrhinic noses.
3a. Iberids (Epi-Magdalenian, Epi-Azilian
and Epi-Tardenoisian Turanids
with microlithic tools): goat-keepers with the
Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-M343, who dwelt in artificial
rock-cut caves and produced burnished ware, Celtiberians,
Etruscans, Irish Iverni or Hyberni.
3b. Teutonic Cimbroids
(Epi-Maglemosian bog-dwelling boat-people with the
Y-DNA haplo-group R1a-M420, they encroached on
Celtic tribes in northwest Europe),
3c. Punoids (Tartessani, Turduli,
Turdetani, Carthaginians, 800 BC):
maritime fishermen, pirates and cliff-dwellers with vertical shafts, related
to Lycians, Cilicians
and Cypriots (17,000 BC),
4. Gracile Mediterranids:
slim mesocephals with gracile
tall faces and hyperleptorrhine noses.
4a. Polonians: Epi-Aurignacian nomadic fishers surviving dominantly in
Poles and Bulgarians and partly also in the Chasséen
and La Tène Culture.
4b. Pelasgids: the
residual race of Cardial Tungids,
Levalloisian fishers and ‘sea peoples’ responsible for orthognathous,
leptorrhine and leptoprosopic
countenance of white Euroasian races.
5. Gothids: tall, long-headed, white-skinned and
blue-coloured Europoid races with axe-tools.
5a. Danubian Europids: the Linear Ware people called Langobards, Langiones, Buri and Quadi,
propagators of the Neolithic agriculture in Southern and Central Europe.
5b. Littoralids or Litorids (dolichocephalous phenotypes of medium stature
often denoted as Atlanto-Mediterranids): the
Bell-Beaker Folk with the Y-DNA haplogroup I2a-M26.
Baskids. The race of giant ogres and ogresses belonged to
the ruling caste of Basque-Scottish cairn-builders and had little to do with
their Celtic bondsmen. They attained a privileged position by importing and
propagating the skills of the Bronze Age metallurgy in European countries.
The Bronze Age technology ensured them leadership in tribal confederations
and chieftaincies. Their wealth initiated customs of building megalithic
tombstones in their honour. Their ancestors lived in poor beehive huts and
buried their dead wrapped in a long piece of cloth under dome-shaped stone cairns (tholoi). The dead
corpse had to be anointed, mummified and deposited in the sitting posture
under the cairn vaulting. The Bronze Age innovations improved these customs
by building huge rounds barrows. The circular ground-plan was applied also in
round tables, henges and circles of stones for
communal rites and parliamentary sessions (Greek circus plaza agora in
front of the town-hall tholos).
Basco-Scytho-Ugric cultural morphology
Funeral architecture: dolmen, cairn (Britain), round barrow, tholos
Monumental architecture: broch (Scotland), henge (Britain), nuraghe (Sardinia), talailot (Menorca)
megalith-builders: [Vascones – Vasates – Sotiates
(Pyrenees)] + [Agri Decumates – Mediomatrici
– Pictones, Pictavi
(North France)] + [Picts – Scots – Ogres
(Britain)] + [Scandza – Varangians (Scandinavia)]
cultures, Hügelgräber: [Mattiaci – Seducii – Angrivarii
– Fosi (West Germany)] + [Picentes – Peucetians – Messapians (Italy)]
Cyclopes: [Mycenaeans – Argolids/Argives] + [Mysians (Anatolia) – Bessi – Macedonians – Moesians]
Scythoids: [Abkhaz – Abazin – Maeotians] + [Matiana – Media –
Scythia – Sogdiana – Sacae]
The megalith-building tribes are
recognised as a special anthropological stock only in the Basque Baskids but little attention is paid to their relations
other races of giant ogres in Europe. Megalithic
constructions are scattered all over western Europe from the Pyrenees to the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Africa they form one compact block with the Berber Imazhigen.
Their descendants now speak languages with definite and indefinite articles
falling into two groups. The northern Germanic languages have created
definite articles from demonstrative pronouns, while the southern Romance
group with articles le, la, il, gli, el show affiliation to the Arabic
definite articles al-, el-. Indefinite articles an and une are derived from the numeral one but
may have had a parallel in Arabic indefinite article un-. Moreover,
Germanic, Romance and Arabic articles vary in accord with sandhi
effects and the initial consonant of the following noun.
Such similarities suggest the hypothesis of the
common origin of megalith-builders in the Aterian, Solutrean, Szeletian, Lincombian,
Ranisian and Jerzmanowician area uniting cultures with leaf-shaped spearheads. These cultures were linked by one belt
of the epi-Mousterian techno-complex leading from Africa to Spain, France and Central Europe. In the Neolithic these cultural blocks passed
through independent development that resulted in the rise of
megalith-building Baskids, tumuli-building Dinarids, tholoi-building
Cyclopes and kurgan-building Scythoids. Their
architecture consisted of the dome-shaped tholoi
graves, tholoi town-halls, round kraal
enclosures for cattle and circular henges for temples
and collective rites. These cultures shared general basic patterns in common
but added differences due to various growth of Bronze Age civilisations.
Celtic tribes lived in volatile tribal
confederations with a variegated stratification of castes. In the Bronze Age
the upper-caste was represented by the fabulous race of ogres composed mainly
from Basques and Scots. They acted as the dominant military and
administrative superstratum residing in dome-shaped
forthills called brochs, nuraghi or talaiots. The
latter were constructed from thick walls by methods of dry-stone vaulting
without addition of mortar. Their bondsmen and hirelings were genuine Eteo-Celts, who served as the most populous substratum
able to absorb its rulers and integrate them into the hold-all Celtic unity.
Their subordinate standing was perceptible from the fact that their cremation
burials were situated on the periphery of ogrish forthills.
Hallstattian Norids. In the Iron Age the glory of ogrish
forthills faded down, their walls dilapidated and
were rebuilt as oppida by new landlords of the Hallstattian stock. The anthropologists classify them as gracilised Hallstatt Nordids in belief that they celebrate the lordly race of
white full-blooded Aryans. In fact, the Hallstattian
skulls betray a mixture of Danubian Europids with Sarmatids bearing
residual Mongolic traits. Their identification with Aryans is correct since
the Hallstattians descended from the Sarmatian Aryas with
horse-drawn chariots. They interred their chieftains in mounds with their
horses and chariots and built fortified oppida with
towers, bastions and crenels.
homeland of chariot-burials was in Sintashta-Petrovka
culture (2100–1800 BC) in the Chelyabinsk
Oblast of Russia. Here they learnt the local Iranian dialects of
Indo-European origin. Their cultural influence bedimmed the fact that they
were consanguine relatives of Uralids and Ugrids and younger brothers of Eurasian kurgan-builders.
Their people lived as horse pastoralists in steppe
grasslands of Asia, and
after revealing the skills of iron metallurgy they set out on invasive raids
into Central Europe. The belt of
their conquered lands led to the Hungarian Puszta
and headed along the Danube
river basin for Gallia and Iberia.
Their settlements were lined with the tribal ethnicities of Iaxamatae, Roxolani, Iazyges. At
first they arrived in Hungaria as Yasi, Norici and
Narisci. In Moravia they
survived as descendants of Volcae and Boihemi and in Gallia they
emerged as Volcae Tectosages
and Volcae Arecomici.
They became landlords of ancient Europe when
they settled down in Italy as Boii, Marsi, Osci and Volsci.
Their warriors and military home defence later conquered lands that created
the immense domain of the Roman Empire.
Mediterranean Tungids. The Scythian and Sarmatian rulers were welcomed in Europe as a stock of supernatural demiurges (aesir)
accompanied by several castes of human servants. In their chieftaincies the middle classes of lower gentry were
represented by urban merchants and patricians. They had promoted their social
standing predominantly by seafaring trade or market fishery. They amassed
great pecuniary wealth but did not treasure it in castles. They founded
lowland sites called duns and preferred to live in urban lofty palaces
instead of high steep hillforts. Their elites
assumed a leading position in the La Tène
civilisation that began to blossom in the Late Iron Age. Their culture
emerged from obscurity thanks to a revitalisation of Chasséen,
Lagozzan and Pfyn
lakeside post-dwellings. They earned living by fishery, merchantry
and money-changing. Their clients paid them for banking services by laying
away golden coins, votive gifts and sacral offerings in the cultic wells,
shafts, sink-holes and cenotes. Current ethnology
insists on rating their cultural group as the
very core of Celtic expansions although they had nothing in common with the
race of Eteo-Celtic Alpinids.
Lake-dwellers colonised lake districts of western Europe
in several waves. The last wave caused the revitalisation and spread of the
La Tène merchants from Istria to Asturia. Its side
branch files were led by the Belgae, whose
march made for Britain and Ireland. Fairy-tale legends described them
as Pelasgoid acorn-eaters, who practiced flower
cult and imported cherry-tree cultivation to the British Isles. Their ancestors had merits for reviving
the ring of Cortaillod, Chasséen,
Lagozzan and Horgen
civilisations blooming between 3900 BC and 3500 BC.
Their Neolithic lakeside colonies obviously arose as an awaking of Aurignacian settlers and Chancelade
Tungids (36,000 BC).
Aurignacian Tungids had remote relatives, who had occupied the
Mediterranean coasts since time immemorial. Hypothetically speaking, their
earliest forefathers were Levalloisians with
flake-tool industry knapped from a well-prepared platform. Neolithic
excavations disclosed their descendants as manufacturers of the Cardial Ware. It was adorned by imprints
of the shell of the cockle, a mollusk known as Cardium edulis. Their seaside ecotype
was reminiscent of the IE littoralists, so Joseph Denikers classified them as Littoralids.
The Cardial Ware, however, linked tribes with
cultural morphology similar to Levalloisian fishers and lake-dwellers. They
occupied the tectonic Great Depression spanning from the Jordan Rift to lakes
in East Africa. In the north it extended from the Levant and Byblos to the Romanian Hamangia culture and from
here it stretched to the Adriatic Sea. Here it continued with Illyrian and Dalmatian tribes to Carinthia, Italy and Spain.
Its fishermen populations did not build tepee tents but round post-dwellings
with pointed conical roofs.
Levalloisians. Their Levalloisian ethnic identity is usually impugned,
archaeologists have arrived at the dogmatic conclusion that they did not
represent an ethnic tribe but just a method of knapping. In their opinion the
Levalloisian culture denotes only a specific formal type of technology
applicable to all civilisations. Notwithstanding, about 500,000 BP the
Levalloisian people credibly expanded along the long migration route from South Africa to the Levant and from here to the Himalayas in India.
The mainstream of their colonists came to Europe around 125,000 BP. Their diaspora was
recorded by the Leptolithic style of long prismatic
knives and even today its tracks are visible in the specific architecture of
conical roundhouses and the row settlement alignment. While Aurignacians tended to build tepee post-dwellings, Epi-Cardial and Epi-Levalloisian
cultures preferred to construct roundhouses with conical roofs and
cylindrical walls. Their archetype is envisaged in the South African rondavel radiating eastward to Dravidian India. In
countries of the European Cardial Ware its relicts
are seen in the Italian trullo, Spanish palozza and Irish crannog.
Divinities and their
tutelary animals: Baal/Apollo/Lykaios – wolf,
Artemis/Diana – bear, Leto – swan, Delos, Delphi – dolphin
Divine twins: Dioscuroi Castor and Pollux,
Apollo – Artemis/Diana, Gemini, Lel – Polel (Poland)
Pelasgians (Pelasgiotes) ® Belegezites (Thessaly) ® Illyri (Illyrioi, Illyrii) ®
Dalmatians ® Carinthanians (Austria and Slovenia)
Epi-Cardial-Ware: [Epi-Ahmarian: Palestinian/Philistine – Dan
(Levant)] + [Eteo-Cretan
– Delian – Peloponnese] +
[Lydian – Carian – Leleg] + [Danaan – Pelasgian – Paeonian (Macedonia) – Larissan] + [Dalmatian – Illyrian – Carinthian] + [Daunian – Apullian] + [Faliscan – Latin – Paelignian] + [Dolomitian – Bellunese – Ladin
– Piavianh] + [Ligurian?
– Corsican] + [Pelendones
– Carni (Spain)]
Epi-Cardial Pelasgoids with conic roundhouses:
Italian Apulli and Dauni with trullo huts + Spanish Pelendones with palozza huts + Scottish
Dumnonii with the lake-dwelling
crannogs + Irish Firbolgs
Epi-Latenians: [La Tène, France, 450 BC]
® Belgae (before
100 BC) in Gallia Belgica and Belgium
® [Belgae in Britain ® Cornish/Kernowek (Wales) ® Tuatha Dé Danann
(Irish cherry-tree growers)]
Funeral architecture: oval pitgraves, fossa graves,
ochre burials with corps sprinkled by ochre powder
Sacral architecture: menhirs, standing stones, stone rows, stone alignments
architecture: roundhouses, crannogs, duns in the sense of ‘stone-built
fortified settlements’ with ‘roundhouses’, ‘low forts’ and ‘cities styled as
urban market places’; their ground-plan is characterised by streets along
rows of semidetached houses facing the waterside
Table 36. Epi-Aurignacian and Pelasgoid Epi-Cardial cultural
The architectural style of East African rondavels
is imitated by the trullo house in Italian Apullia.
Its conical roof lies on a higher cylindrical wall. In Murgia
such houses are called casedda.
Instead of straw thatching they have a higher cylindrical vault from
limestone blocks. They adjoin to one another as semidetached constructions.
They usually face the riverside bank and preserve alignment of streets and
row houses parallel to the flowing river stream.
One of residues of archaic lake-dwellings in East Africa can be seen in
the architecture of Spanish palozzas. They
form conical roundhouses with a circular or oval ground-plan. The inner core
is composed from a wooden frame or a stone structure. The pointed thatched
roof consists of rye straw. It has no chimney, the smoke from the kitchen
fire leaks away through a hole in the roof. It is very popular in northern Spain, especially in Galicia.
Crannog. Conical roofs and
circular ground-plan are typical also of the Scottish crannag
and Irish crannóg. They stand on an
artificial island formed by a platform from wooden timber logs. The pointed
top of the roof differs from Tungusic tepees by
lacking crossed poles. Its design seems to be derived from rondavels popular in eastern coasts of South Africa.
Megalithism influenced all archaeological cultures of western
Europe and gave them an imprint of patterns peculiar to the Asiatic Kurgan
people. Atlantic megalithisation and Asiatic kurganisation took course as parallel processes
reinforced by the consanguine peoples of Basco-Scytho-Ugrid
giants. Megalithism was a reflection of the growing
military power of chieftains in the leadership of tribal confederacies.
Ordinary commoners did not live in large dome-shaped tholoi
but in low beehive huts out of wattle and straw. They were not buried in huge
tumuli and kurgans but had to content with eternal rest under simple
heaps of stones (pile burials) common among Namibian Khoikhoi
herders. Bascoid B-Celts represented Non-Celtic
populations that had nothing common with Alpinoid
Celts except for infiltrating into their homeland. Thus
Proto-Celtic kʷ developed into Irish k but
in Welsh it rendered b. For instance, B-Celtic reproduced the Irish word mac as
Welsh mab and Gaulish mapos since
these B-Celtic languages lacked labiovelars kw,
gw in their phonological repertory. English queen
and Old Norse kvenn corresponds to Welsh benyw and Irish ban.
Romance and Italic languages that look like its Q-Celtic subdivisions.
Their consistence is undermined by the cuckoo’s eggs pushed under from
without into their hatch. Their original prehistoric shapes are distorted by
a number of inorganic additions of heterogeneous components absorbed later
amidst their homeland. In the case of Romance languages a lot of dogmatic
prejudices have been dispelled by the Italian Neo-Linguistic School (Giuliano Bonfante,
Vittorio Pisani) that
explained their integrity as a secondary result of the Roman Empire’s expansions. The Roman impact on Dacia, Dalmatian, Illyrian or Italic dialects was
enforced by means of official administrative decrees and it managed to
suppress the native regional tribal diversity. A less controversial frame of
mind was reigning in the narrower concept of Celtic philology, whose unity is
based on the abundant populousness of the Alpinoid substratum in western Europe. Its original
diversity was successfully revealed by Heinrich Wagner and his Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects. Wagner
pertained to ingenious reformers of Celtic studies, who impugned the idea of
undifferentiated compact unities and concentric dialectal homelands. He
became an ardent supporter of Trubetzkoy’s Kettentheorie that refused to regard the alleged
IE unities as one homogeneous ethnic block and tried to carry out an analytic
decomposition of their subcomponents.
Its tenets emphasised the need to explain common unities as a crossroad of
diverse tribal civilisations. They presupposed that prehistoric migratory
chains intermingled with neighbouring populations and finally fused them into
modern nations. Such theoretical disquisition of the Celtic crux claimed that
what looked like a hypothetical Celtic proto-language was actually only a
mixed conglutination of diverse ethnicities compelled to share one Atlantic
realistic approach to Celtic anthropology requires distinguishing several
incompatible ethnic substrata and racial layers. They consist of Atlantic and Mediterranean phenotypes that composed into one whole by
archaeological invasions. The first step in the subtle decomposition of the
Celtic ethnic complex consists in separating the genuine core of Eteo-Celtic tribes (Alpine Gauls,
Scottish Albani, Irish Gaels) from inimical
races of megalith-builders (Basques, Scots), the Iron Age invaders (Hallstattians), lake-dwellers (Chasséen
people, Latenians – La
Tène people), Littoralids
Folk) and Iberids (Iberians, Celtiberians, Phoenicians) with necropoleis and rock-cut dwellings.
of core of Celts reduced to Eteo-Celts was formed
by several streams of short-sized brachycephals
drifting from North Africa. They manifested residual traits of Mauretanian and Maghrebian Alpines,
Chadic semi-Pygmids (Bolewa, Vandala) and the Somali
Galla people. Their earliest arrival in Europe was announced by finds of the Gravettian
culture (26,000 BC) and statuettes of its graceful Venuses. Their visage
dazzled European autochthones with characteristic features of female Sanids: round brachycephalous
heads, curly or frizzly hair, matronism,
long cylindrical breasts hanging down as far as the waist, thick hips wrapped
with enormous subcutaneous fat, steatopygia and
lumbar lordosis. Such female phenotypes predestined
them to act as eligible wives for male denizens.
Alpinids. A critical revision of the Celtic family
advises to reduce the extent of its intrinsic genetic boundaries only to the racial
variety of Alpines, Alpinoids and Alpinids. They are described as low-skulled,
brachycephalous roundheads with a short stocky,
thickset figure. They had a small round chin, small concave noses, brown hair
and light-brown skin. Their appearance was depicted pregnantly
by Hans Günther: “the
Alpine race is thick-set and broad. The average height of the Alpine man is
metres. This small height is brought about by
the relatively short, squat legs. This broadness and shortness is repeated in
all the details: in the broadness of the hand and its short fingers, in the
short, broad feet, in the thick, short calves.“
Fir Bolg clan as the Érainn
(Irish) people equivalent to Belgae. He was convinced
that Iverni were identical to the Irish subgroup
known as the Builg.
Hiberni: a population of cave-dwelling
deer-hunters identifiable with the Cresswellian
culture (13,000BP) that occupied Britain as an
offshoot of the continental Magdalenians (13,000 BP); their British ethnonyms
were Cimbri (Cornwall), Cymry (Wales),
Cumbri (North Britain northwest of York,
ancient Eburodunum), Hebrides, inhabitants of Inner and Outer Hebrides. These
names echo also in the Scottish place name Inverness and their Irish
colonies Hiberni and Iverni, (southwestern Ireland).
The first Kesair immigrants fought with the Fomoiri, who were described as the ‘netherworld giants’.
Yet there must have been two different hosts or generations of the Creswellians. The typical Magdalenians
lived as reindeer-hunters in caves, the Fomoiri inhabited cliff-dwellings in seaside crags as piratic cannibals. They
were piratic raiders and rock-cut cave dwellers of
remote Turcoid origin.
* Pre-Gothoid Partholons: the first agriculturalists, who taught
the natives to employ the ox and plough; their description looks antedated
but may refer to the early Gothoid axe-tool
cultures of Littorids in Britain, the Larnian culture in north Ireland and the Obanian complex on western Scotland. Their descendants
may be sought in the dolichocephalous people with long skulls, who interred
the dead in long barrows. These ethnic factions were probably responsible for
importing Neolithic agriculture to Britain
about 4000 BC.
* Fir Bolg Pelasgoids: the
sons of Dela and the first race of Tungusoid nomadic fishermen in the British
Isles; it tended to build their dwellings crannogs on
artificial islets in lakes but differed from continental lakeside fishers
with rectangular post- and pile-constructions by applying the Epi-Cardial or even Epi-Levalloisian
style of conical roundhouses. They had a cylindrical understructure
and resembled the rondavels of Kafrids
in East and South Africa.
Instead of continental anthropomorphous stellae they preferred to build as megalithic menhirs, standing stones and alignments.
* Epi-Latenian Belgae: migrants of the continental La Tène culture that is erroneously counted to Celts;
they came about 500 BC as caste of patricians who got rich by trade, merchantry and seafaring. The natives remembered them as
gentle cultivated people, who imported planting and growing cherry-trees in Britain.
They respected them as the people of Tuatha Dé Danann.
* Gaelic Eteo-Celts: the
short-sized brachycephalous race of Eteo-Celts that arrived to Britain
with the Deverel-Rimsbury culture of Cinerary Urns.
The British Gaels called themselves of northern Britain
Albannaich. Geoffrey of Monmouth explained their descent from Trojans,
who fled to the Epirotic Albania, then they made a
stop at the queen Dido in Carthage and at last found a refuge as Heneti/Veneti in the district of Venice and
as populi Albanenses
at Alba Longa in central Italy. They were lead by
Aeneas, whose descendant Brutus founded the kingdom of Alba
remembered now as Albion. Later the term Albania
took roots as a designation of Scotland.
Table 39. The
ethnic and racial layers in the population of Ireland
(Extract from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology,
2018, p. 106-109, 117)