Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology                  

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

Systematic folkloristics                    




Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

  Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore











*     Racial taxonomy

*     Ethnical taxonomy

*     Europe

*     Asia

*     Anatolia

*     Caucasus

*   Africa

*   Arabia

*     India

*     China

*     Indonesia

*     Indochina

*     Polynesia

*     Australia

*     North America

*     South America



*        Spain             France

*        Italy       Schweiz

*        Britain      Celts

*       Scandinavia  

*       Germany

*       Slavs     Balts      

*         Greece   Thrace

*        Anatolia



The Ancient Tribes of the British Isles

                                           Click on names (red letters) of human varieties (with yellow background) and read about their decomposition into ethnic subgroups.

                                          Notice traditional fallacies and preconceptions concerning the traditional misleading categories of human races. Clickable terms are red on yellow background.




The Ancient tribes of Great Britain and Ireland









































Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Frisians as Gothonids  


    Indo-European origins naturally fall in with the rise of the Nordic and Caucasoid tall white-skinned dolichocephals. It can be dated back neither to the Neolithic nor to the Campignian Litorids (approximate estimate is 10,000 BC), whose birth must have preceded that of Japanese Jomonians (13,000 BC or even 16,000 BP). The dating of the European axe-tool Macrolithic and Micoquian elongated hand-axes (130,000 BP) does not seem to be sufficient, either. The unity of all boreal northern dolichocephalic hand-axe people may approach to the Acheulean horizon close to 500,000 BP. The earliest forefathers of all Nordids and Europids can be seen in Micoquians. The probable ancestors of all Caucasoids (western Gothids and eastern Gothonids) may be sought in Acheuleans or their Yabroudian progeny.

Epi-Acheulean Macrolithic axe-tool makers Ethiopids + Gothonids + Gothids + Getids

Gothids Scando-Gothids + Norico-Gothids + Dano-Gothids + Ibero-Gothids + Britano-Gothids.

Epi-Micoquian Getids Daco-Getids + Anatolo-Getids+ Irano-Getids

Afro-GothonidsEthiopids + Aigyptoids + …

Gothids: Eurasian Nordic dolichocephals with macrolithic axes and s-plurals

Scando-Gothid: Homo s. eu. gothicus­, Gotho-Frisians with the Corded Ware culture and the Y-hg I1.

Exo-Gothids (their derived forms retained Y-hg I1 but departed for Britain and eastern Eurasia): Anglo-Saxons, Juto-Frisians, Yotvingo-Prussians, Ud(murt)-Permiacs,

Geto-  Dacians (Balkans),

Geto-Persians (Iran), Khattri-Brahmans (India).

Norico-Gothid: Homo s. eu. danubianus­, Langobardians (Buri, Langiones, Quadi) with the Danubian

Linear Band Culture and the Y-hg I2, fertile alluvial lowlands, longhouses in riverside valleys.

Dano-Gothid:  Homo s. eu. rugianus­, Rugian Funnel Beaker culture, TBK, Reihengräber, row graves.

Ibero-Gothid: Franco-Swabians with the Bell Beaker culture and shell midden dumps on sand-dunes.

Britano-Gothid: Homo s. eu. britanicus­, British and Scandinavian long barrows with long heads.

Daco-Getid: Homo s. eu. balcanicus­: Getae/Getai, Cotesii, Sensii?

Anatolo-Getid: Homo s. eu. anatolicus, Phrygians, Abrettene, Olympene, Catacecaumene

    (Anatolian longhouses, cults of Zeus on Ida Mons and Olympus Mons).

Irano-Getid: Homo s. eu. getopersicus­, Geto-Persian, (Massa)getae, (Thyssa)getae. 

Irano-Gothonids: arid dryland agriculture, tell-sites on artificial mounds, flat-roofed multi-roomed labyrinths, bull worship, bull fighting, bull leaping, ergative constructions, b-plurals.

Anatolo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. anatolicus, Hattians, Hittites, Hethites, Kittim.

Georgo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. georgicus­, Georgians, Mingrelians.

Elamo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. elamiticus­, Elamites, Susians, Gutii.

Indo-Gothonid: Homo s. e. indicus et dravidicus, Gadaba, Kota, Kodagu.

Afro-Gothonids: Epi-Acheulean plant-gatherers, arid oasis horticulture, flat-roofed multi-roomed labyrinths, bull worship, bull fighting, bull leaping, ritual initiation of boys leaping over bulls’ heads.

Cretan Gothonid: Homo s. e. creticus: Cretans with idols of boucrania, taurokathapsia ‘bull-leaping’.

Ethiopian Gothonid: Homo s. e. aethiopicus, bull cults, bull-leaping.

Aigyptoids: Egyptian agriculturalists fellahs, cults of the sacred bull Apis.

Italian Elamitoids: Bruttii, Italici, Elymes, bull sacrifice taurobolium to Magna Mater.

Spanish Elamitoids: bull-fighters toreros, bull-leaping recortes in Valencia,

West Sudanese Gothonids: bull-leaping rituals, leaping over bulls’ heads.

Table 25. Genuine Indo-European tribes stemming from the Acheulean axe-tool tradition

  The genuine core of Indo-European people was formed by the racial varieties of tall dolichocephals, who are traditionally classified as Nordids, Europids and Caucasoids. However, their designation is not very fortunate and fitting for a lot of terminological reasons. They can be renamed as the Gothonic nations of Acheulean origin, who later split into branches of European Gothids and Asiatic Gothonids. The Caucasus has been a multinational area since time immemorial and Nordids share a lot of traits with Scandinavian tall robust and red-haired megalith-builders. Terms hinting at the etymology of the European and African continent are not eligible, either, because they are derived from the Hebrew ethnonymic root Abram-/Iber-/Cimbr-. Asiatic Gothonids (Hattians, Hittites, Hethites, Gutians, Kota, Gadaba) encroached also on the ethnonymy of South and East Europe. They are known up to now as bull-idolaters, bull-adorers with the Y-haplogroups J1 and J2. Their Mediterranean colonies include Spanish bull-fighters, Valencian bull-leaping recortes, Gasconian bull-leapers (sauteurs and écarteurs), Cretan bull-leapers and Abyssinian bull-walkers. Their bull worship was associated with ritual sacrifices of bulls and initiation rites for young age-classes. They were common also in Cameroon and West Sudan. They ordered adolescent youths to walk over the backs of an aligned row of bulls. An enumerative delimitation of Eteo-Gothonids is given in the list of their basic varieties (Table 25).

   The demographic prevalence of Gothids and Gothonids in the European continent was challenged by a number of Asiatic tribes, who infiltrated their settlements from the east and soon naturalised their hosts in the new environment. They arrived in Europe with Aurignacians, Magdalenians, Maglemosians, Gravettians and Hallstattians. Before their advent European axe-tool makers shared their land with several races of Asiatic flake-tool cultures: Clactonians, Levallosians and Mousterians. Paleoanthropology sections them into the Early Gracile Neanderthalers and the Classic Crude Robust Neanderthalers.1 This division corresponded to difference between Levalloisian flakes knapped from a well-prepared platform and Mousterian retouched bifaces. In the Upper Palaeolithic the Levalloisians resorted to Leptolithic long prismatic knives and the Mousterians to leaf-shaped lance-head projectiles. The Eteo-European axe-tool making tradition later crystallised into Macrolithic industry and the stock of autochthonous Gothids. Gothids formed autochthonous axe-tool makers with blood group O and Y-haplogroups I1, I2. Asiatic invaders imported the blood group B and Siberian Y-haplotype C, Q, R, N.



Priestly kin



Royal kin


Vindhyas Hindus















Goths, Jutes















Burones, Langobards






Gutii, Hittites






Table 26. The tribal ethnonymy of Gothonic tribes and castes

Table 25 recommends to designate the genuine core of Europoids as Gothids and subsume the family of (pre)agriculturalist Caucasoids under the label of Gothonids. It demonstrates their parallels in the names of chief tribal moieties and phratries. The decisive criterion for judging their genetic consanguinity and common origin is found in the resemblance of their ethnonymy.

   A reliable guideline for ethnic differentiation in the Germanic area is provided by plural formation. In English, Frisian, West Flemish and the Lower Saxon Germanic dialects plurals are formed by adding the suffix -s. The traditional account of s-plurals considers these plural suffixes as a direct continuation of the IE *-s due to lack of rhotacism. In Scandinavia the Norwegian and Swedish plurals in -er, -or allegedly originated from -s by means of rhotacism. In our view we had better explain r-plurals as a foreign inorganic intrusion imported by microlith cultures from Altaic languages. In the German pluralisation BuchBücher the infiltration of r-plurals is accompanied by three Altaic traits that prove the Turcoid origin of Cimbrians: import of front rounded vowels, Umlaut alternation and vowel synharmony correlating back rounded vowels to their respective front rounded counterparts. The genuine Eteo-Germanics comprised only Herminones composed from Cimbrian and Teutonic tribes reinforcing Altaic r-plurals. The true heirs of Indo-European autochthons were only Istvaeonic and Ingvaeonic/Ingaevonic tribes that retained the original s-plurals.

   Anglo-Saxon and West Frisian plurals in -s witnessed that Ingaevonic dialects defended old nominal pluralisation and felt hostility to umlaut r-plurals. This IE heritage was anxiously protected also by Istvaeonic tribes operating in the south. They coincided with the Bell Beaker Folk, whose migrations ranged from France to Spain and Portugal. Their areas were less disrupted by Germanic colonisations but coped with another rival represented by the Romance vocalic pluralisation. Portuguese, Spanish and French reinforced the original Gothoid s-plurals, while the rest of Romance family lost them or reduced their number. Latin, Italian and Rumanian mostly abandoned s-pluralisation under the pressure of Gallisation insisting on Epi-Gravettian o-stems and a-stems. A significant part of the Lower Saxon Germanic dialects retained s-pluralisation and keeps its continuity in Standard Dutch and West Flemish. However, in the northern Scandinavian domain the plural ending -en gains more and more ground. Its hegemonistic position is probably due to the strong ethnic substratum of megalith-building Scandids. 


Pseudo-Celtic Adstrata


The complex of B-Celtic family can be defined as a group of Non-Celtic, Pseudo-Celtic or Allo-Celtic languages that refuse African labiovelars as alien phonemes defying their phonologic repertory. The group of B-Celtic languages is referred to as Brittonic, although it is not their typical representative and their core encompasses several Non-Indo-European dialects. The genuine Brittonic element is strongest in tribes burying in long barrows, and its traits considerably differ from Welsh, Cornish and Cumbric that are traditionally included in the B-Celtic complex. They were probably imported by Asiatic invaders of Sarmatoid and Turcoid stamp because in their consonantism the opposition of fortis-lenis stops plays a more decisive role than the correlation of voiced and voiceless sounds. What qualified them all as members of the B-Celtic family was just the lack of labiovelar consonants. In fact, they were reluctant also to accepting other Africanisms, prenasalisation and postnasalisation, nasal vowels, tonal accentuation, melodic intonation and the opposition of habitual and progressive tenses.

Although there exist no firm boundaries dividing Eteo-Celts from Pseudo-Celts, we can partition the latter group into three factions:

(1)  Epi-Aterian and Epi-Solutrean ancestors of Baskids and other megalith builders,

(2)  Hallstattian Sarmatids (800 BC) with horseback-riding cavalry and chariot burials.

(3)  Mesolithic Turanids with rock shelters, rock paintings and rock-cut caves,

(4)  Epi-Aurignacian and Epi-Levalloisian Tungids with lake-dwellings and row alignments of 

      menhirs, stellae and other types of standing stones,

(5) Europoid Gothonids with long dolichocephalic heads.

*        1.  Basco-Dinarids: tall round-headed brachycephals with convex aquiline noses.

*        1a. Baskids: Iberian Vascones, Basques, Spanish megalith-builders.

*        1b. Ogres: Atlantic folktale ogres (Scots, Picts, Scandinavians, Varangians), who lived in broch castles and buried their dead in round cairns. Their funerary rites required mummification, anointment, burial shrouds and wrapping the dead corpse by a long piece of cloth. They celebrated solstice festivals in circular henges, had sessions at round tables and kept cattle in cylindrical enclosures (kraals). Their dolmens consisted of two upright stones covered by a capstone slab and served as an opening into a subterranean cairn.

*        2. Norids: mutated types of Danubian herders, eastern Sarmatids and Uralids with flat faces.

*        2a. Sarmatids: Hallstattian settlers (800 BC), who extended Sarmatian chariot burials from the Volga river basin to Romania, Moravia and Italy. Their raiders included the Italic tribes of Marsi, Boii, Osci and Volsci. Their belligerent files comprised also Scandinavian Æsir and Normans and were responsible for the spreading the Romanesque defensive, residential and sacral architecture. Their description as dolichocephalic Nordids and Aryans is misleading.

*        2b. Eteo-Norids: taller meso- and brachycephals with flat faces and high protruding cheekbones.

*        3.  Turanids: imported from Central Asia by Mesolithic cultures with microlith implements. They were remarkable for mesocephaly, high narrow faces, smaller hands and feet, leptorrhinic noses.

*        3a. Iberids (Epi-Magdalenian, Epi-Azilian and Epi-Tardenoisian Turanids with microlithic tools): goat-keepers with the Y-DNA haplogroup R1b-M343, who dwelt in artificial rock-cut caves and produced burnished ware, Celtiberians, Eburones, Eburovices, Etruscans, Irish Iverni or Hyberni.

*        3b. Teutonic Cimbroids (Epi-Maglemosian bog-dwelling boat-people with the Y-DNA haplo-group R1a-M420, they encroached on Celtic tribes in northwest Europe),

*        3c. Punoids (Tartessani, Turduli, Turdetani, Carthaginians, 800 BC): maritime fishermen, pirates and cliff-dwellers with vertical shafts, related to Lycians, Cilicians and Cypriots (17,000 BC),

*        4.  Gracile Mediterranids: slim mesocephals with gracile tall faces and hyperleptorrhine noses.

*        4a. Polonians: Epi-Aurignacian nomadic fishers surviving dominantly in Poles and Bulgarians and partly also in the Chasséen and La Tène Culture.

*        4b. Pelasgids: the residual race of Cardial Tungids, Levalloisian fishers and ‘sea peoples’ responsible for orthognathous, leptorrhine and leptoprosopic countenance of white Euroasian races.

*        5.  Gothids: tall, long-headed, white-skinned and blue-coloured Europoid races with axe-tools.

*        5a. Danubian Europids: the Linear Ware people called Langobards, Langiones, Buri and Quadi, propagators of the Neolithic agriculture in Southern and Central Europe.

*        5b. Littoralids or Litorids (dolichocephalous phenotypes of medium stature often denoted as Atlanto-Mediterranids): the Bell-Beaker Folk with the Y-DNA haplogroup I2a-M26.

Baskids. The race of giant ogres and ogresses belonged to the ruling caste of Basque-Scottish cairn-builders and had little to do with their Celtic bondsmen. They attained a privileged position by importing and propagating the skills of the Bronze Age metallurgy in European countries. The Bronze Age technology ensured them leadership in tribal confederations and chieftaincies. Their wealth initiated customs of building megalithic tombstones in their honour. Their ancestors lived in poor beehive huts and buried their dead wrapped in a long piece of cloth under dome-shaped stone cairns (tholoi). The dead corpse had to be anointed, mummified and deposited in the sitting posture under the cairn vaulting. The Bronze Age innovations improved these customs by building huge rounds barrows. The circular ground-plan was applied also in round tables, henges and circles of stones for communal rites and parliamentary sessions (Greek circus plaza agora in front of the town-hall tholos).

Basco-Scytho-Ugric cultural morphology

Funeral architecture: dolmen, cairn (Britain), round barrow, tholos (Mycenaean),

Monumental architecture: broch (Scotland), henge (Britain), nuraghe (Sardinia), talailot (Menorca)

Baskids, megalith-builders: [VasconesVasatesSotiates (Pyrenees)] + [Agri DecumatesMediomatriciPictones, Pictavi (North France)] + [Picts – Scots – Ogres (Britain)] + [ScandzaVarangians (Scandinavia)]

Dinarids, tumulus cultures, Hügelgräber: [MattiaciSeduciiAngrivariiFosi (West Germany)] + [PicentesPeucetiansMessapians (Italy)]

Cyclopes: [MycenaeansArgolids/Argives] + [Mysians (Anatolia) – Bessi – Macedonians – Moesians]

Scythoids: [AbkhazAbazinMaeotians] + [Matiana – Media – ScythiaSogdianaSacae]

The megalith-building tribes are recognised as a special anthropological stock only in the Basque Baskids but little attention is paid to their relations other races of giant ogres in Europe. Megalithic constructions are scattered all over western Europe from the Pyrenees to the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Africa they form one compact block with the Berber Imazhigen. Their descendants now speak languages with definite and indefinite articles falling into two groups. The northern Germanic languages have created definite articles from demonstrative pronouns, while the southern Romance group with articles lela, il, gli, el show affiliation to the Arabic definite articles al-, el-. Indefinite articles an and une are derived from the numeral one but may have had a parallel in Arabic indefinite article un-. Moreover, Germanic, Romance and Arabic articles vary in accord with sandhi effects and the initial consonant of the following noun.

Such similarities suggest the hypothesis of the common origin of megalith-builders in the Aterian, Solutrean, Szeletian, Lincombian, Ranisian and Jerzmanowician area uniting cultures with leaf-shaped spearheads. These cultures were linked by one belt of the epi-Mousterian techno-complex leading from Africa to Spain, France and Central Europe. In the Neolithic these cultural blocks passed through independent development that resulted in the rise of megalith-building Baskids, tumuli-building Dinarids, tholoi-building Cyclopes and kurgan-building Scythoids. Their architecture consisted of the dome-shaped tholoi graves, tholoi town-halls, round kraal enclosures for cattle and circular henges for temples and collective rites. These cultures shared general basic patterns in common but added differences due to various growth of Bronze Age civilisations.

Celtic tribes lived in volatile tribal confederations with a variegated stratification of castes. In the Bronze Age the upper-caste was represented by the fabulous race of ogres composed mainly from Basques and Scots. They acted as the dominant military and administrative superstratum residing in dome-shaped forthills called brochs, nuraghi or talaiots. The latter were constructed from thick walls by methods of dry-stone vaulting without addition of mortar. Their bondsmen and hirelings were genuine Eteo-Celts, who served as the most populous substratum able to absorb its rulers and integrate them into the hold-all Celtic unity. Their subordinate standing was perceptible from the fact that their cremation burials were situated on the periphery of ogrish forthills.

Hallstattian Norids. In the Iron Age the glory of ogrish forthills faded down, their walls dilapidated and were rebuilt as oppida by new landlords of the Hallstattian stock. The anthropologists classify them as gracilised Hallstatt Nordids in belief that they celebrate the lordly race of white full-blooded Aryans. In fact, the Hallstattian skulls betray a mixture of Danubian Europids with Sarmatids bearing residual Mongolic traits. Their identification with Aryans is correct since the Hallstattians descended from the Sarmatian Aryas with horse-drawn chariots. They interred their chieftains in mounds with their horses and chariots and built fortified oppida with towers, bastions and crenels.

   The native homeland of chariot-burials was in Sintashta-Petrovka culture (2100–1800 BC) in the Chelyabinsk Oblast of Russia. Here they learnt the local Iranian dialects of Indo-European origin. Their cultural influence bedimmed the fact that they were consanguine relatives of Uralids and Ugrids and younger brothers of Eurasian kurgan-builders. Their people lived as horse pastoralists in steppe grasslands of Asia, and after revealing the skills of iron metallurgy they set out on invasive raids into Central Europe. The belt of their conquered lands led to the Hungarian Puszta and headed along the Danube river basin for Gallia and Iberia. Their settlements were lined with the tribal ethnicities of Iaxamatae, Roxolani, Iazyges. At first they arrived in Hungaria as Yasi, Norici and Narisci. In Moravia they survived as descendants of Volcae and Boihemi and in Gallia they emerged as Volcae Tectosages and Volcae Arecomici. They became landlords of ancient Europe when they settled down in Italy as Boii, Marsi, Osci and Volsci. Their warriors and military home defence later conquered lands that created the immense domain of the Roman Empire.

Mediterranean Tungids. The Scythian and Sarmatian rulers were welcomed in Europe as a stock of supernatural demiurges (aesir) accompanied by several castes of human servants. In their chieftaincies the middle classes of lower gentry were represented by urban merchants and patricians. They had promoted their social standing predominantly by seafaring trade or market fishery. They amassed great pecuniary wealth but did not treasure it in castles. They founded lowland sites called duns and preferred to live in urban lofty palaces instead of high steep hillforts. Their elites assumed a leading position in the La Tène civilisation that began to blossom in the Late Iron Age. Their culture emerged from obscurity thanks to a revitalisation of Chasséen, Lagozzan and Pfyn lakeside post-dwellings. They earned living by fishery, merchantry and money-changing. Their clients paid them for banking services by laying away golden coins, votive gifts and sacral offerings in the cultic wells, shafts, sink-holes and cenotes. Current ethnology insists on rating their cultural group as the very core of Celtic expansions although they had nothing in common with the race of Eteo-Celtic Alpinids.

Lake-dwellers colonised lake districts of western Europe in several waves. The last wave caused the revitalisation and spread of the La Tène merchants from Istria to Asturia. Its side branch files were led by the Belgae, whose march made for Britain and Ireland. Fairy-tale legends described them as Pelasgoid acorn-eaters, who practiced flower cult and imported cherry-tree cultivation to the British Isles. Their ancestors had merits for reviving the ring of Cortaillod, Chasséen, Lagozzan and Horgen civilisations blooming between 3900 BC and 3500 BC. Their Neolithic lakeside colonies obviously arose as an awaking of Aurignacian settlers and Chancelade Tungids (36,000 BC).

Epi-Cardial Pelasgids. Aurignacian Tungids had remote relatives, who had occupied the Mediterranean coasts since time immemorial. Hypothetically speaking, their earliest forefathers were Levalloisians with flake-tool industry knapped from a well-prepared platform. Neolithic excavations disclosed their descendants as manufacturers of the Cardial Ware. It was adorned by imprints of the shell of the cockle, a mollusk known as Cardium edulis. Their seaside ecotype was reminiscent of the IE littoralists, so Joseph Denikers classified them as Littoralids. The Cardial Ware, however, linked tribes with cultural morphology similar to Levalloisian fishers and lake-dwellers. They occupied the tectonic Great Depression spanning from the Jordan Rift to lakes in East Africa. In the north it extended from the Levant and Byblos to the Romanian Hamangia culture and from here it stretched to the Adriatic Sea. Here it continued with Illyrian and Dalmatian tribes to Carinthia, Italy and Spain. Its fishermen populations did not build tepee tents but round post-dwellings with pointed conical roofs.

Levalloisians. Their Levalloisian ethnic identity is usually impugned, archaeologists have arrived at the dogmatic conclusion that they did not represent an ethnic tribe but just a method of knapping. In their opinion the Levalloisian culture denotes only a specific formal type of technology applicable to all civilisations. Notwithstanding, about 500,000 BP the Levalloisian people credibly expanded along the long migration route from South Africa to the Levant and from here to the Himalayas in India. The mainstream of their colonists came to Europe around 125,000 BP. Their diaspora was recorded by the Leptolithic style of long prismatic knives and even today its tracks are visible in the specific architecture of conical roundhouses and the row settlement alignment. While Aurignacians tended to build tepee post-dwellings, Epi-Cardial and Epi-Levalloisian cultures preferred to construct roundhouses with conical roofs and cylindrical walls. Their archetype is envisaged in the South African rondavel radiating eastward to Dravidian India. In countries of the European Cardial Ware its relicts are seen in the Italian trullo, Spanish palozza and Irish crannog.

Divinities and their tutelary animals: Baal/Apollo/Lykaios – wolf, Artemis/Diana – bear, Leto – swan, Delos, Delphi – dolphin

Divine twins: Dioscuroi Castor and Pollux, Apollo – Artemis/Diana, Gemini, LelPolel (Poland)

Pelasgians (Pelasgiotes) ® Belegezites (Thessaly) ® Illyri (Illyrioi, Illyrii) ® Dalmatians ® Carinthanians (Austria and Slovenia)

Epi-Cardial-Ware: [Epi-Ahmarian: Palestinian/Philistine – Dan (Levant)] + [Eteo-CretanDelianPeloponnese] + [LydianCarianLeleg] + [DanaanPelasgianPaeonian (Macedonia) – Larissan] + [DalmatianIllyrian Carinthian] + [DaunianApullian] + [Faliscan Latin Paelignian] + [DolomitianBellunese – Ladin – Piavianh] + [Ligurian?Corsican] + [PelendonesCarni (Spain)]

Epi-Cardial Pelasgoids with conic roundhouses: Italian Apulli and Dauni with trullo huts + Spanish Pelendones with palozza huts + Scottish Dumnonii with the lake-dwelling crannogs + Irish Firbolgs1

Epi-Latenians: [La Tène, France, 450 BC] ® Belgae (before 100 BC) in Gallia Belgica and Belgium ® [Belgae in Britain ® Cornish/Kernowek (Wales) ®  Tuatha Danann (Irish cherry-tree growers)]

Funeral architecture: oval pitgraves, fossa graves, ochre burials with corps sprinkled by ochre powder

Sacral architecture: menhirs, standing stones, stone rows, stone alignments

Popular secular architecture: roundhouses, crannogs, duns in the sense of ‘stone-built fortified settlements’ with ‘roundhouses’, ‘low forts’ and ‘cities styled as urban market places’; their ground-plan is characterised by streets along rows of semidetached houses facing the waterside

Table 36. Epi-Aurignacian and Pelasgoid Epi-Cardial cultural morphology

   Trullo. The architectural style of East African rondavels is imitated by the trullo house in Italian Apullia. Its conical roof lies on a higher cylindrical wall. In Murgia such houses are called casedda. Instead of straw thatching they have a higher cylindrical vault from limestone blocks. They adjoin to one another as semidetached constructions. They usually face the riverside bank and preserve alignment of streets and row houses parallel to the flowing river stream.

   Palozza. One of residues of archaic lake-dwellings in East Africa can be seen in the architecture of Spanish palozzas. They form conical roundhouses with a circular or oval ground-plan. The inner core is composed from a wooden frame or a stone structure. The pointed thatched roof consists of rye straw. It has no chimney, the smoke from the kitchen fire leaks away through a hole in the roof. It is very popular in northern Spain, especially in Galicia.

  Crannog. Conical roofs and circular ground-plan are typical also of the Scottish crannag and Irish crannóg. They stand on an artificial island formed by a platform from wooden timber logs. The pointed top of the roof differs from Tungusic tepees by lacking crossed poles. Its design seems to be derived from rondavels popular in eastern coasts of South Africa. 

Megalithism influenced all archaeological cultures of western Europe and gave them an imprint of patterns peculiar to the Asiatic Kurgan people. Atlantic megalithisation and Asiatic kurganisation took course as parallel processes reinforced by the consanguine peoples of Basco-Scytho-Ugrid giants. Megalithism was a reflection of the growing military power of chieftains in the leadership of tribal confederacies. Ordinary commoners did not live in large dome-shaped tholoi but in low beehive huts out of wattle and straw. They were not buried in huge tumuli and kurgans but had to content with eternal rest under simple heaps of stones (pile burials) common among Namibian Khoikhoi herders. Bascoid B-Celts represented Non-Celtic populations that had nothing common with Alpinoid Celts except for infiltrating into their homeland. Thus Proto-Celtic  developed into Irish k but in Welsh it rendered b. For instance, B-Celtic reproduced the Irish word mac as Welsh mab and Gaulish mapos since these B-Celtic languages lacked labiovelars kw, gw in their phonological repertory. English queen and Old Norse kvenn corresponds to Welsh benyw and Irish ban.1









































British Celts

   Romance and Italic languages that look like its Q-Celtic subdivisions. Their consistence is undermined by the cuckoo’s eggs pushed under from without into their hatch. Their original prehistoric shapes are distorted by a number of inorganic additions of heterogeneous components absorbed later amidst their homeland. In the case of Romance languages a lot of dogmatic prejudices have been dispelled by the Italian Neo-Linguistic School (Giuliano Bonfante, Vittorio Pisani) that explained their integrity as a secondary result of the Roman Empire’s expansions. The Roman impact on Dacia, Dalmatian, Illyrian or Italic dialects was enforced by means of official administrative decrees and it managed to suppress the native regional tribal diversity. A less controversial frame of mind was reigning in the narrower concept of Celtic philology, whose unity is based on the abundant populousness of the Alpinoid substratum in western Europe. Its original diversity was successfully revealed by Heinrich Wagner and his Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects.1 Wagner pertained to ingenious reformers of Celtic studies, who impugned the idea of undifferentiated compact unities and concentric dialectal homelands. He became an ardent supporter of Trubetzkoy’s Kettentheorie that refused to regard the alleged IE unities as one homogeneous ethnic block and tried to carry out an analytic decomposition of their subcomponents.2 Its tenets emphasised the need to explain common unities as a crossroad of diverse tribal civilisations. They presupposed that prehistoric migratory chains intermingled with neighbouring populations and finally fused them into modern nations. Such theoretical disquisition of the Celtic crux claimed that what looked like a hypothetical Celtic proto-language was actually only a mixed conglutination of diverse ethnicities compelled to share one Atlantic West-European space.

   Adopting a realistic approach to Celtic anthropology requires distinguishing several incompatible ethnic substrata and racial layers. They consist of Atlantic and Mediterranean phenotypes that composed into one whole by archaeological invasions. The first step in the subtle decomposition of the Celtic ethnic complex consists in separating the genuine core of Eteo-Celtic tribes (Alpine Gauls, Scottish Albani, Irish Gaels) from inimical races of megalith-builders (Basques, Scots), the Iron Age invaders (Hallstattians), lake-dwellers (Chasséen people, LateniansLa Tène people), Littoralids (Bell-Beaker Folk) and Iberids (Iberians, Celtiberians, Phoenicians) with necropoleis and rock-cut dwellings.

   The genuine of core of Celts reduced to Eteo-Celts was formed by several streams of short-sized brachycephals drifting from North Africa. They manifested residual traits of Mauretanian and Maghrebian Alpines, Chadic semi-Pygmids (Bolewa, Vandala) and the Somali Galla people. Their earliest arrival in Europe was announced by finds of the Gravettian culture (26,000 BC) and statuettes of its graceful Venuses. Their visage dazzled European autochthones with characteristic features of female Sanids: round brachycephalous heads, curly or frizzly hair, matronism, long cylindrical breasts hanging down as far as the waist, thick hips wrapped with enormous subcutaneous fat, steatopygia and lumbar lordosis. Such female phenotypes predestined them to act as eligible wives for male denizens.

   Alpinids. A critical revision of the Celtic family advises to reduce the extent of its intrinsic genetic boundaries only to the racial variety of Alpines, Alpinoids and Alpinids. They are described as low-skulled, brachycephalous roundheads with a short stocky, thickset figure. They had a small round chin, small concave noses, brown hair and light-brown skin. Their appearance was depicted pregnantly by Hans Günther: “the Alpine race is thick-set and broad. The average height of the Alpine man is about 1.63 metres. This small height is brought about by the relatively short, squat legs. This broadness and shortness is repeated in all the details: in the broadness of the hand and its short fingers, in the short, broad feet, in the thick, short calves.“3


interpreted the Fir Bolg clan as the Érainn (Irish) people equivalent to BelgaeHe was convinced that Iverni were identical to the Irish subgroup known as the Builg.

 * Iberoid Hiberni: a population of cave-dwelling deer-hunters identifiable with the Cresswellian culture (13,000BP) that occupied Britain as an offshoot of the continental Magdalenians (13,000 BP); their British ethnonyms were Cimbri (Cornwall), Cymry (Wales), Cumbri (North Britain northwest of York, ancient Eburodunum), Hebrides, inhabitants of Inner and Outer Hebrides. These names echo also in the Scottish place name Inverness and their Irish colonies Hiberni and Iverni, (southwestern Ireland). The first Kesair immigrants fought with the Fomoiri, who were described as the netherworld giants’. Yet there must have been two different hosts or generations of the Creswellians. The typical Magdalenians lived as reindeer-hunters in caves, the Fomoiri inhabited cliff-dwellings in seaside crags as piratic cannibals. They were piratic raiders and rock-cut cave dwellers of remote Turcoid origin.

* Pre-Gothoid Partholons: the first agriculturalists, who taught the natives to employ the ox and plough; their description looks antedated but may refer to the early Gothoid axe-tool cultures of Littorids in Britain, the Larnian culture in north Ireland and the Obanian complex on western Scotland. Their descendants may be sought in the dolichocephalous people with long skulls, who interred the dead in long barrows. These ethnic factions were probably responsible for importing Neolithic agriculture to Britain about 4000 BC.  

* Fir Bolg Pelasgoids: the sons of Dela and the first race of Tungusoid nomadic fishermen in the British Isles; it tended to build their dwellings crannogs on artificial islets in lakes but differed from continental lakeside fishers with rectangular post- and pile-constructions by applying the Epi-Cardial or even Epi-Levalloisian style of conical roundhouses. They had a cylindrical understructure and resembled the rondavels of Kafrids in East and South Africa. Instead of continental anthropomorphous stellae they preferred to build as megalithic menhirs, standing stones and alignments. 

* Epi-Latenian Belgae: migrants of the continental La Tène culture that is erroneously counted to Celts; they came about 500 BC as caste of patricians who got rich by trade, merchantry and seafaring. The natives remembered them as gentle cultivated people, who imported planting and growing cherry-trees in Britain. They respected them as the people of Tuatha Danann.

* Gaelic Eteo-Celts: the short-sized brachycephalous race of Eteo-Celts that arrived to Britain with the Deverel-Rimsbury culture of Cinerary Urns. The British Gaels called themselves of northern Britain Albannaich. Geoffrey of Monmouth2 explained their descent from Trojans, who fled to the Epirotic Albania, then they made a stop at the queen Dido in Carthage and at last found a refuge as Heneti/Veneti in the district of Venice and as populi Albanenses at Alba Longa in central Italy. They were lead by Aeneas, whose descendant Brutus founded the kingdom of Alba remembered now as Albion. Later the term Albania took roots as a designation of Scotland.

Table 39. The ethnic and racial layers in the population of Ireland

(Extract from P. Bělíček: The Analytic Survey of European Anthropology, 2018, p. 106-109, 117)












































































1 Jiří A. Svoboda: The Gravettian on the Middle Danube. PALEO. Revue d'archéologie préhistorique 19, 2007.

2 Édouard Dupont: Sur les crânes de FurfoozCompte-rendu du Congrès de Préhistoire. 6, 1872: 555–559.

1 T. F. O'RahillyEarly Irish History and Mythology. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1946.

1 J. Buettner-Janusch: Physical Anthropology: A Perspective. New York - London: Wiley, 1973, p. 253.

1 John Carey: Fir Bolg: a native etymology revisited, inCambridge Medieval Celtic Studies 16 (Winter 1998), pp. 77–83.

1 Carl Darling Buck: A dictionary of selected synonyms in the principal Indo-European languages : a contribution to the history of ideas. Chicago : Univ. Press, 1980, p. 84.

1 Heinrich Wagner – Colm O'Boyle: Linguistic atlas and survey of Irish dialects. Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies 1958, 1982.

2 H. Wagner: The origin of the Celts in the light of linguistic geography. Trans. Phil. Soc. 1969, 1, 1970:  203-250, p. 228-9.

3 Alpine race (online);

2 Geoffrey of Monmouth: Historia regum Britanniae, originally called De gestis Britonum, 1136.