The most urgent reform needed in humanities is to establish the division of labours common in natural sciences. In their realm there is no professional hierarchy between systematic science (comparative literary history), applied technology (applied linguistics), cultural ideology (jubilee journalism), school education (language teaching), handicrafts (practical criticism) and occult sciences (hermeneutics). This is an explosive social situation when professors of systematic zoology, veterinary doctors, horse-breeders and milkmaids have to compete at university for one professorial chair. Without a functional division of labours these specialities cannot fulfil their appropriate social roles.
When analysing different application levels inside a science we have to clearly distinguish two theoretical boundaries: (1) one between science and technology and (2) that between theoretical research and everyday practice (politology vs. politics, religionistics vs. religion, literary theory vs. practical criticism). The goals of academic science and applied technology are principally different, the former tries to develop trustworthy knowledge of existing reality whereas the latter aims to create some new reality for human needs. The former endeavours to trace the evolutionary laws of nature while the latter considers only their use for human society in order to apply them for devising new facilities. Their essential differences are summed up in Table 6.
In social sciences
advances of the 19th century brought a great predominance of
comparative, evolutionary and typological methods while the 20th
century shifted the focus on formal, structural or functionalist techniques.
The clash between external and internal approaches shows a great
misunderstanding as to disciplinary boundaries dividing academic and applied
research. Humanities cannot develop their professional applications because
their confusing makes them deny one another’s specific rights and
suppress their social functioning. To abolish external methods in natural
sciences means to abolish science as such and to replace systematic biology
by applied technology, by animal husbandry or agronomy. Confusing application
levels distorts academic studies and disables humanities to such an extent as
if the curricula of the Faculty of Natural Sciences were replaced by those of
The rational layout of basic application levels with their respective methods, school institutions and varieties in linguistics is outlined on Table 7. Besides there is a number of other false substitutes that distort academic studies into cultural ideology, entertainment, creative essay writing and popular journalism. Religion, ideology, education, entertainment, technology and craft do not pursue any cognitive purpose, they provide spiritual or material technology for improving and prettifying man’s world. Only facultative sciences may enjoy academic status because they deal with information processing, with collecting, archiving, storing, retrieving, diagnosing, measuring and examining data. They concern data processing where applied technology specialises in ‘reality-processing’ activities. Table 8 gives a brief survey of constructive and remedial applied sciences in comparison with two types of facultative sciences in the right two columns.
Table 8 Fields of applied technology in natural and social studies
Facultative and applied fields of study need a systematic classification into formal, descriptive, constructive and remedial techniques. The first group (A) surveys facultative disciplines pursuing goals of description, recognition, reception, diagnostics, measurement and inspection. The second group (B) concerns ‘reality-processing’ fields enquiring into production, construction and development. Their techniques are in close relation to managemental care listed in the group (C). This includes branches dealing with management, maintenance, control and technical care. Repair services fall into the section D of remedial techniques, while preventive and terminative (extinctive) technologies (E-F) stand apart because they pursue human sake by means of removing harmful defects. The last set of techniques (G) includes occult sciences that pretend false fictive work in assistance with supernatural forces.
A. Recognitive disciplines:
1. recognitive ‘-gnomies’ (physiognomy, botanical keys, OCR, algorithms of sentence analysis,
recognitive and categorial grammars)
2. facultative inspecting ‘-scopies’ (endoscopy, microscopy, demoscopy),
3. descriptive ‘-graphies’ (cartography, demography, dialectography),
4. measuring ‘-metrics’, devised for an exact quantification of size and occurrence (econometrics,
sociometrics, demometry, phonometry),
5. instructive and introductory ‘-agogics’ (isagoge, isagogics, pedagogy).
B. Constructive technology:
1. productive manufacturing ‘-urgies’ (metallurgy, chirurgy),
2. constructive and building ‘-tectonics’ (architectonics),
3. growth genetics (psychogenetics, ontogeny of children’s speech),
4. educational ‘-pedies’ (pedagogy, orthopedy, logopedics).
C. Managemental technology:
1. cultivating ‘-cultures’ (agriculture, horticulture, pisciculture),
2. cattle-breeding ‘-trophies’ (hippotrophy ‘keeping horses’),
3. managemental ‘-nomies’ (economy ‘house-keeping’, agronomy),
D. Remedial technology:
1. curative ‘–therapeutics’, (psychotherapeutics, error correction),
2. curative ‘-iatries’ (psychiatry, pediatry, pediatrics, phoniatry).
3. repair services (motor-car repair, electricity fixing).
E. Preventive technology:
1. preventive protective „prophylactics“ (psychoprophylactics).
F. Terminative technology:
1. extinctive ‘–machies’ (myomachy ‘mouse extinction’, deratisation)
G. Manipulative pseudo-sciences:
1. cultic ‘-agogies’ manipulating with masses (mystagogy, demagogy, commercial advertisements,
electoral propaganda, political ideology),
2. occult interpretative ‘-mancies’ (chiromancy, astrology, hermeneutics),
3. worshipping cults and ‘-latries’ (idolatry, physiolatry),
4. belief-prescribing doctrines and ‘-doxies’ (orthodoxy, katechesis).
Extract from P.
Bělíček: Ad reformandum universitatem: Towards a Reform
of Modern University Studies.