Prehistoric tribes

Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric haplogroups








*     Genetic taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europids

*     Nordids

*     Indids

*     Littoralids

*     Caucasoids

*     Elamitoids

*     Negrids

*     Melanids

*     Tungids

*     Pelasgids

*     Cimbroids

*     Turanids 

*     Ugro-Scythids

*     Uralo-Sarmatids

*     Lappids

*     Sinids



                       Haplogroups of Uralo-Sarmatids with the Y-DNA Haplogroup N-M231

                         Clickable terms are red on the yellow background



Table 1. The earliest Y-haplogroups of Asiatics,Mongolians and Sibirids

Map 1. The migration tree of the Uralo-Sarmatoid Y-DNA haplogroup N


Map 2. The toponymic map of the the Uralo-Sarmatoid tribes with the Y-DNA haplogroup N in Siberia









































The Genesis of Asiatics, Sibirians, Sarmatids and Uralids with the Y-Haplogroup N


   Current  population genetics explains the rise of the Uralic Y-haplogroup from the paternal chromoseme NO that is regarded as the common ancestor of the Uralic group N and the Sinitic group O. This hypothetical presupposition contradicts typological evidence because the bearers of O are the short-sized Annamites and Negritos with omnivorous subsistence, while Uralids are tall nomadic moose-hunters and militant horse-eaters (hippophagoi). New mutations usually arise among tribes exposed to contacts and intermarriages between heterogeneous populations, while ethnic groups living in relative isolation maintain stable genomes. In the light of these observations, the haplogroup NO might be evaluated as an early hybrid neoplasm. 

  Traditional views support the widespread assumption that the people Asia are Mongolids consisting of Altaic, Tungusic, Mongolic and Sinitic peoples. In fact, Mongolians are a mixture of slab grave cultures1, imported between 700 and 300 BC by Scythians, and the Chulmun variety (8000 BP) of the Uralic Comb Ware (6000 BP). The race of Sinids themselves consists of crossbred hybrids between northern nomadic steppe horse-herders and the dwarfish Negritos of Southeast Asia. The Neolithic horse-herders developed from Palaeolithic big-game hunters and horse-eaters (hippophagoi). We tend to classify them as Samatoids (i.e. various ethnicities resemblant to Sarmatians and affiliated to them by prehistoric migrations) but their appropriate term is Asiatids (Asii, Ossii, Asoi, Ossetes) because of the vague semantics of common catchwords such as Asiatics.

   The genuine ancestors of Uralids should be sought in the Palaeolithic Ordosian culture that roamed all over steppe grasslands of the Ordosian Plateau highlands and lived on horse-hunting. In the Neolithic its life-style was taken over by the Xialongwa culture (6200-5400), Liao people and the Ordos techno-complex that passed from horse-hunting to horse-rearing. These ethnic groups inhabited the steppes of northeast China and Mongolia and drank beverages made of sour milk of mares. They applied Sarmatoid endonyms such as Asii-/Ossii-/Ossetes/Yazygi, Aors-/Ars-/Aryas, Ros-/Rus-, Mari-/Mordvin-, Welens/Volcae/Vlakhi/Wallachians and Boii. In their folktales Buyan was an invisible sacred island with a glass mount or a hillfort of gods. Buyan or Dove Book are also telling names for the Russian and Uralic apocryphal bible. Such ethnonymic association shines transparently through the place names of Uralids, Sarmatians, Sibirians, Sumerians as well as African Amharians. Their racial genealogies can be arranged into ancestral chains: Asiatids > Sibirids > Uralids and Sumerids > Samarans > Amharians. In addition to ethnonymic links, the convincing evidence of their mutual kinship looms in traits such megafauna hunting, nomadic life-style, high migrative mobility, four-pitch-roof marquee tents, stemmed projectiles (Foliolithic industry), sky burials, the exposition of the dead on scaffolds, astrotheism, bone divination and playing bone-dice games. Their myths are united by genealogies from the World Bird hatching its World Egg on the World Tree.

   Despite all doubts concerning the ancestral role of the Y-haplogroup NO, the genetic tree of the Y-haplogroup N-M231 sounds like a persuasive account of the origins of all Asiatids. The subclades of N-M231 can be decomposed into chains, where the formula with the sign a > b means that a is an ancestor of b and b is a descendant, derivate or offshoot of a.

(Palaeo-)Asiatics or Asiatids:

the Upper Palaeolithic or Mesolithic precursors of Uralids living as moose-hunters in the tundra ecotype or as horse-eaters in the steppe grasslands of Asia.

N1a1-M46/TAT > N1a1a1-F1419 (Estonia) > N1a1a1a-L708 > N1a1a1a1a1a-CTS2929/VL29  N1a1a1a2-B211 (Udmurt, Mari, Mordva) > N1a1a1a2a-B181 (Murmansk) > N-Y23183 (Mordovia) > N1a1a1a1b-M2118 (Estonia)


They are referred to as Uralids including Ugrids but they should be distinguished from the latter as Estono-Mordvins. Their branch of Asiatics or Asiatids of later origin was represented by the following chain:

N1a1a1a1a-L392 > N1a1a1a1a1-CTS10760 (Merya) > N1a1a1a1a1a-CTS2929/VL29 (Estonia, Maris)

Semi-Uralic Lappids and Samoyeds arisen as Uralised Lapponoids:

Laplanders were not of Uralic origin but came to Europe with the Gravettian colonisation about 33,000 BC. They descended from the Galla semi-pygmids in Somalia and Ethiopia. The Samoyeds can be classified as Lappids or Lapponoids, too, but they arrived in northwest Russia with the Sel’kups and their Altaic settlements in the Sayan Mountains. Their crowds split from the Lapponoid Indids and Annamite Sinids with cremation burials. In northwest Russia they were both Uralised by the surrounding inimical neighbourhood. 

N1a1a1a1a2-Z1936 > N1a1a1a1a2a-Z1928  > Z1923 > N-YP6091/SK1485 >

N1a1a1a1a2-Z1936/CTS10082 (Finns, Mordva) > N1a1a1a1a2a-Z1928/CTS2733 > YP6091 > N1a1a1a1a2a-Z1925 (Finns)

Western Ugrids:

Western Ugrids included the Vepsians, Ingrians/Izhorians, Chud’, Varangians/Varyags, Mescherans and some Finnish groups.  They were bearers of the Y-haplogroup Q but in contact with Estono-Mordvins they were assimilated and absorbed by the environment of Uralic N haplogroups.

CTS10760 (Meshchera) > [YF04468 + N-VL29CTS8868]

Eastern Ugrids:

The next colonisation of allegedly Turanised Uralids was launched by the highly cultivated Yakutians riding on the Yakutian horse. Most authors assume that their characteristic haplogroup N-M2058 was associated with Hungarians, who invaded the Danube Basin around 836 AD. Their ethnonym is interpreted as a derivation of the Old Russian "Yugra" (Югра). This presupposition is contradicted by evidence proving that Hungarians descended from the eastern Ugrids, Mansi, Khanty, who are bearers of the haplogroup Q. It ramified into two principal branches:

N-M2126 > M2019 (Yakutia) > [A9408 (Hungaria) > PH1612 (Hungaria) > [YF18836 >YF04204]]

N-M2126 > M2019 (Yakutia) > N-L1026 > M2058 (Yakutia)

These separate chains can be integrated into one united formula by means of the symbols [, ] and +:

N-M2126 > M2019 (Yakutia) > [A9408 (Hungaria) > PH1612 (Hungaria) > [YF18836 >YF04204 ]] + [ N-L1026 > M2058 (Yakutia)]

Sumerian donkey-breeders with the mutation M2058:

Sumerids with the mutation M2058 descend from the area around Samarkand and the Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan). After their southward colonisation they peopled Sumer (3500 BC), then they continued to Shubar, Mari and Syria as far as the Samara colony in the Levant. Another offshoot continued to the southern Caucasus and settled there as the Azerbaijani Azeri. Uzbek and Azerbaijani are now classified as Turanic languages but their inclination to pastoral nomadism makes it probable that they evolved as Turanised Sumerids. The Samaran or Samaritan colony in Palestine gave rise to Christianism, its baby-king cults, astrotheistic divination, and cults of the Holy Spirit in the reincarnation of a dove. Its first prophets were Isaiah and John the Baptist. 

Ahmarian donkey-breeders:

the first Egyptian unificator and pharaoh was Narmer (3150 BC), who must have been a Sumerian conqueror since he introduced donkey-breeding to Africa. Its domestication and use for carrying heavy burdens spread to Nubia and continued to Somalia. This military campaign flooded Egypt and the Horn of Africa with the culture of Pastoral Neolithic remarkable for graves with ostrich eyes. Their descendants survived as Ahmarians but their donkey-oriented husbandry soon switched to cattle-breeding.

Arabian camel-breeders:

Arabs probably developed from Bactrian camelid-rearers. Camels were domesticated in Somalia around 3000 BC and cca 2500 in central Asia. Its herders specialized as Arabitae  in southeast Persia and Pakistan, Bedouins in Sahara and Arabs in Saudi Arabia.

Sarmatids with N-Y6058:

The ancient Greeks and Romans classified Uralic tribes as Sarmatians or Hippophagoi (horse-eaters) and referred to the Baltic Sea as Mare Sarmaticum  They called the Carpathian Mountains Montes Sarmatici and Ptolemy applied the same denomination to the highlands near the tribe Morini and the Samara river in western Gallia. In fact, Estono-Mordvin and Sarmatians were closely related brotherly factions of one family but differed by the type of acquiring carnivorous sustenance. Both ate horses but only Sarmatians drank their milk and sour beverage kumys. In the Late Bronze Age the Estono-Mordvins had to content themselves with moose-hunting, while their brothers mastered horse-driving. They cultivated the Botai culture (c. 3700–3100 BC) and the Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim techno-complex (2200–1800 BC) in the southern Urals. These cultures achieved domestication of equine husbandry, invented iron metallurgy, iron cuirasses and learnt chariot-driving. Their tribes (Sauromatae, Iazyges, Aorsi, Roxolani, Siraces) exhibited high mobility in chariots drawn by heavy draft horses and attained high military skills as warriors with bows, arrows and swords. Their conquests aimed from the south Urals at Saratov and Samara centres near the Lower Volga. The tribes of Iazyges, Aorsi and Roxolani continued north of the Euxine Sea (now the Black Sea) to Pannonia, Noricum and Bavaria.  About 700 BC they founded the Hallstatt colony with superb princely tumuli graves. In Slavic countries they were known as Marharii and Boihemi, in Germany they won fame as Marcomanni and Baiuwari.

Normans with N-Y6058:

The Sarmatian haplotype N-Y6058 belongs to the Uzbek family N-M2126 > M2019 and Meshcheram group CTS10760 but it is remarkable for its wide distribution from China to Britain and Scandinavia. Its northern travels aimed at the Jastdorf culture in north Germany. As mythical Asen and Aesir they founded a principality in Norwegian Asaheim. After a few centuries they returned as Normans to Normandy under the leadership of their chieftain Rollo. Their duke William the Conqueror made claims on Britain because Halstattians earlier settled on the British Isles as Welshmen. When we guess the bearers of N-Y6058 in China, our suspicion falls on Issedones and Yuezhi, who plundered Chinese agricultural ministates.

Eskimids with N1a1-M46/Page70/Tat:

The Sibirids landed also on American coasts as Assiniboines and Sarcee  Indians. The frequency rates of the haplotype N were, however, higher onlz among the Eskimos. They formed an artificial unity inhabiting a very large area but they have to diversified as neatly as other hybrid populations. It is necessary to dissect them into Ugroid igloo-dwellers (Inuit, Miute), Greenlandic whale-bone-dwellers, and Turcoid rockshelter-dwellers with the arctic small tool tradition and R*-M173. The heritage of Siberids is suspected in walrus-hunters and seal-hunters. 











































Uralids and Sibirids: Asiatic Tribes of Hunters and Herdsmen


The ethnic evolution of Neanderthals lasted more than half a million years and they cannot have perished without meaningful consequences upon recent varieties of mankind. Only few authors doubt close kinship between the Turcoids and Tungids because comparative linguistics takes for granted the inseparable Nostratic unity (cca 47,000 BP) of Indo-European, Altaic, Dravidian and Kartvelian families. They do not realise that Altaic flake-tool cultures were incompatible with European axe-tool makers and their inner differentiation was of much earlier date. The Turco-Tungusoids used cutting weapons of crescent shape (throwing knives, boomerangs, sabres) for hunting small game and their morphology conspicuously contrasted with the Ugro-Scythian straight stabbing point weapons (lance-heads, spearheads, swords, daggers) suitable for butchering big game such as the mammoth, buffalo or horse. Their opposition corresponded to the wide abyss gaping between the leptolithic assemblages of nomadic fishermen and the lanceolithic complexes of big-game steppe hunters.               

To put these distinctions in terms of genetics, the Europoid and Causacoid axe-tool makers differed from Altaic lineages by exhibiting the blood group O and two heterogeneous haplogroups: their Y DNA belonged either to the European haplogroup I or to the Central Asian haplogroup J. Altaic big-game hunters were of different extraction, Uralids and Mongolids fell to the Y DNA haplogroup N, while Ugroids and Scythoids pertained to the DNA haplogroup Q. The former ranges along a long belt of northern Eurasia from Scandinavia to the Far East. The latter is very abundant in American prairies.

In the New World Eurasian colonists split into the Algonquin buffalo-hunters and the Uto-Aztecan fishermen. The Algonquins and Quechuans lived in dome-shaped wigwams and displayed the haplogroup Q. The typological patterns of Algonquin tribes corresponded to their Palaeo-Siberian ancestors (Koryaks, Chukchee, Ostyaks, Mansi) with the haplogroup Q but its higher rates remained perceptible only in northern Eurasia. On the other hand, the Uto-Aztecan group continued the ancestry of Tungusic fishermen by building conical tepee-tents and adhering to the Y DNA haplogroup C. The Inuits exhibited the mutation R1-M173 and their overwhelming prevalence in northwest Canada confirmed Eskimo myths about their arrival from Greenland.

   Eurasian haplogroups show a high prevalence of the Y DNA genome C in the Tungusic population, while the Y DNA type N prevails in the Uralic ethnic group. The Y haplogroup R tends to dominate among all branches of the Turcoid stock but it is too wide-spread for drawing accurate conclusions. The higher rates of Y DNA haplogroup Q show high agreement with the westward spread of Scythian and Chudic kurgans. Their funeral architecture propagated to Scandinavia and emerged in western Europe as an offshoot of cairns piled up by Scottish megalith-builders. The Basque megalith-builders in southern Europe descended from Berber colonies in North Africa and inherited also their high rates of Rh-negativity. All megalithic peoples diverged from their Altaic kinsfolk by exhibiting a pronounced predominance of the blood group O. This incongruity concerns the megalithic tribes of Berbers and Basques as well as all Amerindians and undermines the general belief in their appurtenance to Asiatic Mongoloid races. As far as the genetic ABO type O of Amerindians and Eurasian cairn-builders diverges from the blood group B common to other Altaic nations, there exists a simple elucidation for its transmutation at hand. The Asiatic mammoth-hunters drifted to Europe from the Middle Palaeolithic Mousterian culture1 in Siberia and their tall robust stature was due to contacts with Homo lantianensis and H. erectus in China. Their genetic patterns were distorted by overlapping with the blood group O.

    An unconquerable hindrance in the ethnic identification of Altaic peoples is classic comparative ylinguistics and its assimilated language families. The chief superstratum in the Uralic family is formed by ‘Estono-Marian’ nations (Estonian, Mari, Mordvin, Murom, Merya and Norva or Neroma) with t-plurals. Their fraternal subdominant of kurgan-builders with k-plurals included a group of ‘Chudic Ugrians’ such as Ingrians, Hungarians, Mansi, Khanty, and Veps. A different race was represented also by the Lappish reindeer breeders (Lapps, Samoyeds, Enets, Nenets, Sel’kup) with i/e-plurals. The first two penetrated also into the Iranian area and got Iranised under the Indo-European influence. In their middle the ‘Chudic Ugrians’ reappeared as horseback-riding Scythians (Saka, Sakae, Sogdians) and Medes (Μῆδοι, Madai). Another alien intrusion was due to Uralic ‘Estono-Marian’ people who infiltrated into the Iranian neighbourhood as Sarmatians (from Uralic Cheremiss), Ossetes (Yaszy, Yazygi), Roxolanoi (Rushani), Vakhi and Aryans. Uralic ancestors maintained the original hunting economy whereas the Iranian colonists mastered horseback-riding and their militant cavalry began to invade vast territories of Eurasia. If we abstract from their secondary Iranian surrounding, their long-range travels support the proposal to classify them as Sarmatoids and Scythoids. In case these terms could not surpass the insuperable influence of traditional ethnology, their pair might be denoted by alternative Non-Iranian designations of Uraloids and Abkhazoids. The suffix -oid denotes kindred populations resemblant to the staple group. The suffix -id may be reserved for their corresponding racial varieties.

The cultural typology of  Uralo-Sarmatids

    All Altaic tribes professed religious ideas anticipating the later doctrines of Islamic monotheism. Their universe was torn asunder by the dualistic opposition discerning deities of the good (Yahve) and the evil (Satan). Judging by their names, they came into being as ancestors of the two opposite tribal moieties and phratries. Nomadic fishermen prayed to Tengri and Baal (Apollo), while the Siberian big-game hunters and Iranian horse-breeders adored Mazda (Mazdaism, Zoroastrism), Mithra (Mithraism), Indra and Marduk. These positive godheads had antipodes in negative evil deities such as Satan, Ahriman, Veles, Esetan and Yezdan, the chief demiurge in Yazidis’ Yazdânism. The origins of such a bipartition inhered in the distinction between clans of ruling chieftains and shaman medicinemen.


Yaszy/Yazygoi/Osi (duck) – Aorsi/Roxolanoi/Russians/Rushani – Mari/Amorites/Marsi (wolf, woodpecker) – Sarmatians/Cheremiss – Wallachians/Volcae (wolf) – Boii/Boiates (Mount Buyan)


steppes, grasslands, savannahs, mountainous grazing pasture lands, hill-forts and fortified oppida, castles on rocky promontories towering over rivers


hunting and breeding the horse, cattle breeding, warriors’ crafts, slavery, blood-letting, fermenting kumys and milk products, sacred soma drink



marquee tents, Bedouin beyt, Russian shater, quadrangular towers with a flat roof and side crenels, granges with inner courtyards, atria with an opening at top and impluvia for rain drops


totem cults of the World Egg, the World Tree and the World Bird, monotheistic dualism adoring good gods of heavens and bad demonic spirits reigning in the underworld


burying children in hollow trees and the grown-ups on the wooden scaffolding, dispatching the dead corpse on long travels on sledges, skis, horses or chariots, exposition of the dead to birds of prey in the desert or wilderness, sky burials, lycanthropy, werewolves


nagualism, belief in an animal alter ego, enemies can be killed only by shooting down their soul’s bird and crushing its egg, enemies’ heads, skulls and bodies are impaled on pointed stakes of a palisade, vampires killed by stabbing a stake into the bosom


brachycephalous skulls, Mongolian epicanthus, flat broad face


Mousterian bifaces, leaf-shaped lance-heads (lanceoliths) 


Mongolian long asymmetric ankle-length gowns bound with a band, ladies’ tiara or head-dress, broad-rimmed hats, leggings for riding horses


ABO group B, Y-DNA haplogroup N, mtDNA haplogroup A


heroic sagas and epics, rhymed octosyllable and dodecasyllable


agglutination, postpositive inlaut gemination, tenues-to-lenes  opposition, fricatives þ, θ, γ, χ, collective t-plurals, SOV word-order, analytic syntax with auxiliaries and participles

Table 26. The cultural paradigm of Sarmatoid tribes

   There exists sufficient evidence proving that the prehistoric supreme deity of Ossetes, Yaszy, Osi and Yazygoi must have borne the noun root As-/Es-. The Buryat god of heaven was known as Esege Malan, the creator of all living and existing things. The Kazakhs were infiltrated by Mongolian steppe horse-breeders and adored Jasagnan as the supreme god-creator. The Tungus took over from Palaeo-Siberian neighbours the cult of the heaven-god Eskeri, who created the world by fetching a handful of mud from under deep waters. The Japanese venerated and blessed the deity addressed as Izanagi. He won merits for creating the world by fishing out the mainland with a spear. The Guanches on Tenerife Isle beheld the lord of all gods in the deity called Akhaman. There can be no casual coincidence in the fact that Nordic gods were referred to as aesir. They were described as demiurges occupying the mythical pantheon Asaheim. The Etruscan word for gods eisar ‘gods’ or the Old Iranian word yazata ‘divine being’ is not accidental either. Such attribution is controversial only in case of the Hebrew Yahve.

    The Estonians (king Alfred’s Aeste) and ‘Iranian’ Yaszy included a fraternal moiety of Maris, Marians and Narts, whose names crop up in most terms for Uralic nations (Mordvin, Murom, Merya, Neroma). One host of colonists imported horseback riding and two-wheel chariots from the south Ural to Sumer and became feared as the warrior race of Assyrians and Amorites. Their victory in Babel was probably celebrated by enthroning the sun-god Marduk as the ruler in the pantheon of Babylonian gods. Their remote Nuristani relatives managed to enthrone the god Imra or Mara as the supreme deity in their celestial hierarchy. Their Aryan kinsmen launched a bloody invasion into North India and instated the cult of Indra there. He was regarded as a twin brother of the Egyptian god Ra, while the Ossetic tribal moiety had to do with a less respectable position of Aśurah, a title given to all Aryan deities in general.


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Synthetic Classification of Human Phenotypes and Varieties. Prague 2019, pp. 84-88























































1 A. H. Dani, ed.: History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Dawn of Civilization. Paris 1992, p. 466.

1 Peter N. Peregrine - Melvin Amber: Encyclopaedia of Prehistory. Vol. 3: East Asia and Oceania. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2001, Table 15.