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European Human Racial Varieties

Click on names of human varieties (with yellow background) and read about their decomposition into ethnic subgroups

Notice traditional fallacies and preconceptions concerning the traditional misleading categories of human races

Clickable terms are red on yellow background



Table 1. The out-of Africa migrations of Y-DNA haplogroups

(Wikipedia Commons online)









































The Anthropogenesis of Negrids


    All ethnic families are interrelated with our remote forefathers, who descended from the equatorial race of African Negrids. Their stock encompasses almost half of humans stemming from prehistoric axe-tool makers, plant-gatherers and preagriculturalists. Table 2 depicts their evolutionary splitting by means of a genealogic tree graph pursuing the branching of Y-DNA haplogroups (their abbreviations are written E-hg, I-hg etc. This graph omits the lineages of Lappids, Scytho-Ugrids and Ural-Altaic flake-tool makers and concentrates only on the evolution of equatorial dark-skinned Negrids, who mixed with northern boreal races and gradually developed into light-skinned Caucasoids and Europids.

Table 2.  The phylogenetic tree of plant-gatherers and axe-tool makers

    The forthcoming Table 3 attempts to record the parallel splitting of human stocks by the notation of generative grammars. It copes with several unsolved incongruous discrepancies concerning the haplotypes K, D and M. It revives several seemingly obsolete terms of archaeology such as Kafuans, Chelleans, Abbevillians, Anyathians and Campignians classified as Littorids. They are regarded as outdated but appear necessary for filling up certain empty pigeon-holes in the evolutionary process. The category of Acheulean culture covers a period that is too large to express subtle nuances of cultural growth. Archaeologists should follow Louis Leakey, who specified eleven evolutionary stages of the Chelleo-Acheulean ‘hand axe culture.1 The chief problem has to do with the descendants of the Y-DNA haplogroups DE and D. They headed for India, China and Melanesia and must have participated in the birth of Australoid races. A large gap divides from the Oceanic haplotypes M and S, whose rise is erroneously associated with the genome K of Europoid Littorids spreading the shell-midden Lapita culture (5,000 BC). In spite of a few unclarities, Table 3 gives an approximate but instructive visual representation of progress in the largest stock of humanity.

Archaeological axe-tool cultures

Dolichocephalic anthropological groups

Y-DNA population genetics

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Oldowans

H. ergaster ® H. ergaster + H. erectus

DE  ®  DE + D

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Anyathians

H. ergaster  ®  H. ergaster  + Indo-Negroids           

DE  ® DE + F

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Sangoans 

H. ergaster® Paleo-Negrids + Neo-Negrids

DE  ® DE + E

Kafuans ® Sangoans + Chelleans

Paleo-Negrids ® Neo-Negrids + Chelleans

DE ® E + F

Sangoans ® Epi-Sangoans + Lupembans 

Neo-Negrids ® Congoids + Bantuids

E ® E1 + E2

Chelleans ® Chelleans + Abbevillians

Chelleans ® Chelleans + Caucasoids


Abbevillians ® Acheuleans + Irrawaddians

Caucasoids ® Gothonids + Burmids/Hmongids


Acheuleans ® Micoquians + Yabrudians

Gothonids ® Europids + Hethoids/Elamitoids


Micoquians ® Macrolithic + Campignians

Europids® Gothids+Jomon/Vindhya Littorids


Macrolithic ®  Gothids + Gothonids

Gothids ® Gothids + Levantine Hethoids

IJ ®  I + J

Gothids ® Corded Ware + LBK Danubians

Gothids ® Gotho-Frisians + Langobards

I ® I1 + I2

Epi-Oldowans ® Hoabinhians + Lapita?

Epi-Oldowans ® Papuasids + Melanesids

K2bl ® S + M

Table 3.  The branching of dolichocephalic cultures, races and haplogroups


Table 4. The distribution of the African Bantu Y-DNA haplogroup E-M2

African Dolichocephalic Races


   The ethnic dominant in the African continent were the Bantu Negrids, who preferred vegetal food and were confined to the ecotype of damp humid rainforests. These predispositions specialised them as plant-gatherers and banana-eaters. In the Neolithic such (pre)agricultural inclinations turned them into slash-and-burn farmers. Now they are classed as Negrids, Negroids, Congoids, Congids or Congolids. The terms of blacks, Negroes, Melanodermi or Melanochroi are applied also to other African races although the criterion of skin pigmentation is often superficial and misleading. It is a secondary trait due to subsequent hybridisation because the primary racial phenotype of black races is determined by their skeletal osteology and craniology. They belong to the lineage of Jolly’s robust herbivores with vegetal subsistence, agricultural dispositions and axe-tool industry used for digging out plant roots and slashing woody species. They were accustomed to upright gait and nomadic life in clearings of bamboo rainforests in the tropical equatorial zone.

   The rainforests of Central Africa served as the original cradle-land of all Negrids. They stemmed from the Lower Palaeolithic Oldowan culture of Homo erectus and preserved their ethnic and cultural core in ideal unimpaired conditions. Their offshoots encompass all dark-equatorial racial complexes surviving in the equatorial zone but they include also hybrid varieties of depigmented white-skinned races into the colder subtropical, boreal and arctic areas of Eurasia. Their differential analysis is illustrated by Map 3 and Map 13 entered in the first volume. Their purpose is to contrast the height of human stature in Negrids to other anthropological varieties of Africa. Map 3 reproduces the background of Renato Biasutti’s map of African anthropology1 enriched by colours that outline the approximate distribution of racial complexes responsible for such indices.

The black Negrids and their equatorial race engendered more than one third of humankind that was predestined to plant-gathering, farming and manufacturing hand-axe tools. A half of their populations abandoned tropical regions and colonised the Eurasian continent with colder climate. Their cultural morphology shows derived metamorphosed patterns caused by interbreeding with Altaic hunters. Notwithstanding, their assimilative impact could not uproot their filial allegiance to genetic axe-tool traditions. This is how the axe-tool makers have formed a compact group of cultures with tall stature, prominent dolichocephaly (long heads), hypsicrania (tall skulls), euryprosopia (large broad faces), platyrrhinia or chamaerrhinia (broad noses), brachycormia or metriocormia (shorter or medium-size trunks) and macroskelia (long legs, long lower extremities).

    Their Eurasian, Siberian, Indic and North American splinters lost much of this genetic dowry. They were all children of the new cultural Acheulean cultural unity that struck roots in South Arabia. Their stock stemmed from Caucasoids, whose pigmentation made Huxley classify them as brown-skinned melanochroi. They grew into the main Asiatic branch of Caucasoid axe-tool cultures and later also Elamitoid agricuturalists. Independent development afflicted their westward-oriented branch that gave birth to Anatolids, Danubian Europoids and Scandinavian Nordids. These racial offshoots underwent a large-scale depigmentation of skin, hair and eyes. However, interbreeding with Levalloisian and Mousterian flake-tool cultures made them adopt also their leptoprosopia (narrow faces) and leptorrhinia (narrow noses).

Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, pp. 11-13










































1 Peter Robertshaw: A History of African Archaeology. J. Currey, 1990,  p. 81ff.

1 Renato Biasutti: Razze e i popoli della Terra, vol. II, Torino: UTET, 1941, Table I, p. 24.