Democritus                          Reformatorium                                Prehistoric tribes                                    Prehistoric races                                           Prehistoric languages








*     Genetic taxonomy

*     Ethnic taxonomy

*     Europids

*     Nordids

*     Indids

*     Littoralids

*     Caucasoids

*     Elamitoids

*     Negrids

*     Melanids

*     Tungids

*     Pelasgids

*     Cimbroids

*     Turanids 

*     Ugro-Scythids

*     Uralo-Sarmatids



The Y-DNA Haplogroup E-M96 of African Negrids

Clickable terms are red on the yellow background


Map 1. The Migrations of the African Negrids Y- Haplogroup E-M96








































The Subdivision of African Negrids


    Archaeological evidence splits African Negrids into three principal generations: (1) Oldowans (2.5 mya), (2) Sangoans (130,000 BP) and (3) Lumpembans (40,000 BP). Oldowans prevailed in East Africa, the latter two concentrated in the tropical rainforest area. These cultures seem to act as main milestones in the transition from plant-gathering economy to field cultivation and the development of African Neolithic agriculture. The Neolithic hand-axes served to the early farmers as mattocks and hoes for uprooting vegetal roots and their achievements achievement exhibited very small progress for detailed periodisation. It is probable that Oldowans have survived as Palaeo-Negrids while modern Negrids descend from Sangoans.

   Palaeo-Negrids. In isolated refuges of Africa, Europe and Asia it is possible to come across archaic populations reminiscent of the earliest settlers that found their homes in Europe at the dawn of the Lower Palaeolithic Age. The French anthropologist George Montandon subsumed their group as Homo s. palaeniger.1 They were notable for bluish black skin colour, deep-set eye sockets and quadrangular eye-holes. Further characteristic features were heavy brow arches, heavy jaws, sloping foreheads and receding chins.

   European Palaeo-Negrids. The first European colonists were a progeny of Homo erectus (Tautavel man in France) and Homo antecessor (Atapuerca man) and came to Europe with a host of wanderers via Gibraltar. Their people were later superseded by the Acheulean hand-axe makers, who arose by mixing the African Negroid heritage with prefixing classifiers and the Levallosian people, who spoke a language of agglutinating type. They probably came from Aden in Saudi Arabia and via Levant and Anatolia they arrived in the Balkans and Central Europe. In western Europe they met remains of Homo antecessor, who profiled as a Negrid with less sophisticated hand-axe industry of Chellean or Abbevilian style. His progeny was assimilated by Acheulean newcomers but may have survived partly in the Old Black Breed. Their variety was discovered by W. Ripley in the Shetland Islands between 1897 and 1898.2 In Scandinavia it appeared as the Tydal race, whose dialects apply prenasalised stops.

   Zambesids. The Scottish Old Black Breed exhibited deep-set eyes, heavy brow ridges and further archaic tendencies similar to African Palaeo-Negrids. Their proto-type was classified by George Montandon as Homo s. palaeniger. His characteristic features were deep-set eyes, rectangular eye-holes, heavy brow arches, heavy jaws, very wide faces, sloping foreheads, receding chins, strong hairiness and bluish black skin colour. Such tendencies appeared inconsistently also in South and Central Bantuids but they were prominent especially among the tribes of Kwanyama, Hlubi, Fengu and Makua. In condensed form they cropped up in the racial varieties of Katangids, Bergdama and Shara tribes. H. V. Vallois proposed to class them as a special type of Zambesids3. H. Vedder gave preference to the term of Bergdama4 for their peculiarities. B. Lundman was fascinated by the bluish back skin colour in the Shara tribes and suggested to call them Sharids.

   The current results of population genetics imply that the earliest ancestors concentrated around the original homeland laying somewhere in Cameroon and lower reaches of the Congo. Its area was originally populated by the Palaeo-Negrids with the Y-haplogroup E*-M96 and the mt-haplotype L0. Yet their settlements were later overlaid by Neo-Negrid incomers producing the Sangoan industry (130,000 BP) with a more sophisticated axe-tool industry. They superseded Palaeo-Negrids in their old heartland and now coincide with the racial group of Congids. The next step brought differentiation between Bantuids prevailing in East Africa from Somalia to Swaziland. The term of Bantu is not the original ethnonym of all African blacks, its word root is prefixed by the plural classifier ba- attached to plural multitudes of humans.5 Its root -ntu must indicate the tribes of Nde, Ndonge, which often appear in tribal names in East Africa. The Bantu people were not identical to the Zulus and the Kafrid lakeside fishermen but remained faithful to their frugivorous subsistence. Their western branch settled down in West Africa and may be identified with Guineids.

   The tribal structure of African blacks may be reconstructed according to frequency in chains of ethnonyms and linguonym. Table 1 takes efforts to render a rough subcategorisation of African tribes without pretending an exhaustive depth of taxonomic considerations. Its right-hand column suggests frequency rates ruling among three principal branches of black people. The main conclusion is that Oldowans lacked a permanent tribal ethnonymy because the African, Melanesian, Australian, Chinese and Latino-American Negrids bear different tribal names. African blacks created their tribal ethnonyms later in the era of the Sangoan culture.

Negrids Oldowan Palaeo-Negrids + Sangoan Neo-Negrids

Sangoan Neo-Negrids Congids + Guineids + Bantuids

Congids (Central Africa) Mbangwe-Ngom tribes (Y-hg E-M96, mt-hg L0):

                                              Mbangi 2´, Mbangwe 2´, Ngom 2´, Ndasa 1´.

Guineids (West Africa)     Mbum-Gbaya (Y-hg E1a-M132, mt-hg L1, L2):

                                               Mbum 7´, Mbonga, 1´, Gbaya 8´, Gbagyi 3´.

Bantuids (East Africa)      Amba-Ndonge tribes (Y-hg E1b-P177, mt-hg L0a, L0d):

                                                        Ndogo 1´, Ndo 3´, Nding 1´, Ndrule 2´, Amba 3´.

Table 1.  The division of African Negrids in the light of ethnonymic routes


The Anthropogenesis of Negrids


    All ethnic families are interrelated with our remote forefathers, who descended from the equatorial race of African Negrids. Their stock encompasses almost half of humans stemming from prehistoric axe-tool makers, plant-gatherers and preagriculturalists. Table 2 depicts their evolutionary splitting by means of a genealogic tree graph pursuing the branching of Y-DNA haplogroups (their abbreviations are written E-hg, I-hg etc. This graph omits the lineages of Lappids, Scytho-Ugrids and Ural-Altaic flake-tool makers and concentrates only on the evolution of equatorial dark-skinned Negrids, who mixed with northern boreal races and gradually developed into light-skinned Caucasoids and Europids.

Table 2.  The phylogenetic tree of plant-gatherers and axe-tool makers

    The forthcoming Table 3 attempts to record the parallel splitting of human stocks by the notation of generative grammars. It copes with several unsolved incongruous discrepancies concerning the haplotypes K, D and M. It revives several seemingly obsolete terms of archaeology such as Kafuans, Chelleans, Abbevillians, Anyathians and Campignians classified as Littorids. They are regarded as outdated but appear necessary for filling up certain empty pigeon-holes in the evolutionary process. The category of Acheulean culture covers a period that is too large to express subtle nuances of cultural growth. Archaeologists should follow Louis Leakey, who specified eleven evolutionary stages of the Chelleo-Acheulean ‘hand axe culture.1 The chief problem has to do with the descendants of the Y-DNA haplogroups DE and D. They headed for India, China and Melanesia and must have participated in the birth of Australoid races. A large gap divides from the Oceanic haplotypes M and S, whose rise is erroneously associated with the genome K of Europoid Littorids spreading the shell-midden Lapita culture (5,000 BC). In spite of a few unclarities, Table 3 gives an approximate but instructive visual representation of progress in the largest stock of humanity.

Archaeological axe-tool cultures

Dolichocephalic anthropological groups

Y-DNA population genetics

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Oldowans

H. ergaster ® H. ergaster + H. erectus

DE  ®  DE + D

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Anyathians

H. ergaster  ®  H. ergaster  + Indo-Negroids           

DE  ® DE + F

Kafuans ® Kafuans + Sangoans 

H. ergaster® Paleo-Negrids + Neo-Negrids

DE  ® DE + E

Kafuans ® Sangoans + Chelleans

Paleo-Negrids ® Neo-Negrids + Chelleans

DE ® E + F

Sangoans ® Epi-Sangoans + Lupembans 

Neo-Negrids ® Congoids + Bantuids

E ® E1 + E2

Chelleans ® Chelleans + Abbevillians

Chelleans ® Chelleans + Caucasoids


Abbevillians ® Acheuleans + Irrawaddians

Caucasoids ® Gothonids + Burmids/Hmongids


Acheuleans ® Micoquians + Yabrudians

Gothonids ® Europids + Hethoids/Elamitoids


Micoquians ® Macrolithic + Campignians

Europids® Gothids+Jomon/Vindhya Littorids


Macrolithic ®  Gothids + Gothonids

Gothids ® Gothids + Levantine Hethoids

IJ ®  I + J

Gothids ® Corded Ware + LBK Danubians

Gothids ® Gotho-Frisians + Langobards

I ® I1 + I2

Epi-Oldowans ® Hoabinhians + Lapita?

Epi-Oldowans ® Papuasids + Melanesids

K2bl ® S + M

Table 3.  The branching of dolichocephalic cultures, races and haplogroups


Map 2. The distribution of the African Bantu Y-DNA haplogroup E-M2


African Dolichocephalic Races


   The ethnic dominant in the African continent were the Bantu Negrids, who preferred vegetal food and were confined to the ecotype of damp humid rainforests. These predispositions specialised them as plant-gatherers and banana-eaters. In the Neolithic such (pre)agricultural inclinations turned them into slash-and-burn farmers. Now they are classed as Negrids, Negroids, Congoids, Congids or Congolids. The terms of blacks, Negroes, Melanodermi or Melanochroi are applied also to other African races although the criterion of skin pigmentation is often superficial and misleading. It is a secondary trait due to subsequent hybridisation because the primary racial phenotype of black races is determined by their skeletal osteology and craniology. They belong to the lineage of Jolly’s robust herbivores with vegetal subsistence, agricultural dispositions and axe-tool industry used for digging out plant roots and slashing woody species. They were accustomed to upright gait and nomadic life in clearings of bamboo rainforests in the tropical equatorial zone.

   The rainforests of Central Africa served as the original cradle-land of all Negrids. They stemmed from the Lower Palaeolithic Oldowan culture of Homo erectus and preserved their ethnic and cultural core in ideal unimpaired conditions. Their offshoots encompass all dark-equatorial racial complexes surviving in the equatorial zone but they include also hybrid varieties of depigmented white-skinned races into the colder subtropical, boreal and arctic areas of Eurasia. Their differential analysis is illustrated by Map 3 and Map 13 entered in the first volume. Their purpose is to contrast the height of human stature in Negrids to other anthropological varieties of Africa. Map 3 reproduces the background of Renato Biasutti’s map of African anthropology1 enriched by colours that outline the approximate distribution of racial complexes responsible for such indices.

The black Negrids and their equatorial race engendered more than one third of humankind that was predestined to plant-gathering, farming and manufacturing hand-axe tools. A half of their populations abandoned tropical regions and colonised the Eurasian continent with colder climate. Their cultural morphology shows derived metamorphosed patterns caused by interbreeding with Altaic hunters. Notwithstanding, their assimilative impact could not uproot their filial allegiance to genetic axe-tool traditions. This is how the axe-tool makers have formed a compact group of cultures with tall stature, prominent dolichocephaly (long heads), hypsicrania (tall skulls), euryprosopia (large broad faces), platyrrhinia or chamaerrhinia (broad noses), brachycormia or metriocormia (shorter or medium-size trunks) and macroskelia (long legs, long lower extremities).

    Their Eurasian, Siberian, Indic and North American splinters lost much of this genetic dowry. They were all children of the new cultural Acheulean cultural unity that struck roots in South Arabia. Their stock stemmed from Caucasoids, whose pigmentation made Huxley classify them as brown-skinned melanochroi. They grew into the main Asiatic branch of Caucasoid axe-tool cultures and later also Elamitoid agricuturalists. Independent development afflicted their westward-oriented branch that gave birth to Anatolids, Danubian Europoids and Scandinavian Nordids. These racial offshoots underwent a large-scale depigmentation of skin, hair and eyes. However, interbreeding with Levalloisian and Mousterian flake-tool cultures made them adopt also their leptoprosopia (narrow faces) and leptorrhinia (narrow noses).

Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018,

pp. 11-13










































1 George Montandon: Homo palaeniger et Homo niloticus. Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde, t. 6, 1937, p. 107-109.

2 W. Ripley: The Races of Europe: A Sociological Study. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.. London, 1900.

3 H. V. Vallois: Las races humaines. 8th ed., Grammont, 1971.

4 H. Vedder: Die Bergdama. Hamburg 1923.

5 Raymond O. Silverstein: A note on the term 'Bantu' as first used by W. H. I. BleekAfrican Studies 27 (1968),


1 Peter RobertshawA History of African Archaeology. J. Currey, 1990,  p. 81ff.

1 Renato Biasutti: Razze e i popoli della Terra, vol. II, Torino: UTET, 1941, Table I, p. 24.