The prehistoric Oldowans did not have their
stable clan organisation and more permanent tribal ethnonymy.
As a consequence, they did not leave durable vestiges of ethnic clan
hierarchy in their place names and it is not possible to find common roots of
their phratries. The Congids
display a lot of toponyms with the root Cong-
and the Bantuids abound in the tribal name Nde. The ethnic label of the Bantu probably arose
by adding the animate plural prefix ba- to
the root Nte or Nde.
Chinese Sino-Negrids later produced their own
independent ethnonymy several thousand years ago.
The Neolithic changes welcomed them as Hoabinhians
but now they survive as the Hmong-Mien stock.
American Negrids were remote descendants of Chinese
Homo erectus lantianensis but did not
inherit his ethnonymy. Now they chiefly distinguish
the Tupí and Guaraní
branch of their family and these ethnonyms cannot
be older than 10,000 years.
Melano-Negrids (cca 30 000 BP): extreme archaic platyrrhinia,
residual crista sagittalis
characteristic of Homo erectus; ethnonyms
with prenasalised stops mb-, nd-, ng-,
which stand in correlation to voiced consonants.
Australo-Lappids, Negrito Sinids, Lake Mungo site (Negrito diaspora, 56,000 BC):
short-sized stature with short lower extremities, brachycephaly,
pearl shells as pubic covering called jakuli
or riji in Baada,
bead-belts with pubic shell and meander-like key-pattern ornamentation; humpy
lean-to, windbreak shelters, cremation burials; reduplicative morphology, Windowinda, Wembawemba, Wandandian, ethnonymic
roots Kal-/Gal-, Wend-/And-/Ind-.
Oceano-Tungids (30 000
BP): a continuation of Austro-Tungids such as
Telugu, Tulu in Dravidian India, tribes speaking
the Formosan languages of Taiwan and Tagalog on the
Philippines related also to Malaysian, Indonesian and Hawaiian; ethnonymic
roots Bal-, Tung/Dan-, Ker-;
atlatl spear-throwers. pit-graves with ochre burials,
lakeside ecotype, archaic proto-tepee huts, conical round lodges from crossed
poles; gracile slender body-build, Y-haplogroups C4-M343, 60.2 %,
C*-M130, 2.0 %.
Oceano-Turanids (cca 30 000 BP): Y-haplogroups R1-M173, circumcision, knife-throwers,
sickle-shape boomerang throwing, loincloth, cave-paintings, cave shelters
with Azilian-like imprints of phalanges, phallomorphous shamans with herds of wild small game,
X-ray representation of killed animals with translucent intestines for hepatomancy and divination from livers.
Oceano-Scythoids (cca 30 000 BP): a continuation of Munda beehive-dwellers with mummification and burial
rock-pile mounds in India, Aranda people and ethnonymic roots in Manda-, Yurak-.
Oceano-Littoralids (cca 30 000 BP): shell midden
cultures, littoral beachcombers, Lapita culture, Y-haplogroup K*.
Table 1. The
analytic typology and taxonomy of Aboriginal Australians
of Australian black men does not depend upon on Hoabinhian
sources, either. However, it may be recognised easily by the bisyllabic relief of clan names with voiced stops prenasalised the first initial position as well as in the
second syllable. Other ethnic and tribal minorities arrived in Australia with an
accomplished system of tribal organisation and transplanted archaic Eurasian ethnonyms to the then Sahul and
the now Australian continent.
of Australian racial varieties cannot rely only on ethnonymy
and anthropometric measurements. It must involve
into its scope also ethnographic cultural ethnology that makes it possible to
links Australian Aborigines with their Eurasian progenitors. This is why
Table 10 strives to coordinate racial indices with ethnic peculiarities in
architecture, clothing, divination and burial customs. The evidenced
diversity of the haplotype genetic pool can be
interpreted as a proof of multiple invasions of heterogeneous tribes of
different ethnic origin. When compared to New Guinean explorations,
Aboriginal populations in Australia bear relatively
low percentages of the Melanesian haplogroup M,
which must be due to the dominant superposition of the Australo-Tungids
with the C type. Notwithstanding, judging according to tribal ethnonyms with the prenasalised
stops mb-, nd-, ng-,
they represented a very populous substratum.
In the 1910s the school of diffusionist
anthropology managed to revolutionise the 19th century dogmatic
thought by opposing the popular belief that all continents had one unique
ancestor. It admitted migratory diffusion and refuted insisting on theories
that all continents had been populated by one member of Homo sapiens,
who fathered all local subspecies. The comparative evidence of archaeology
demonstrates that all continental bod.gif had obvious typological parallels in Eurasia or Africa. It
is much more probable that Oceania, Polynesia, Australia and America were
visited by several diverse types of archaeological cultures, whose bearers
exhibited incompatible racial traits. Despite subsequent secondary
acculturation their archaeological complexes bore evident resemblance to the
well-known human stocks of Eurasian and African prehistory.
Anthropological and cultural traits
genuine Australids or Australo-Negrids
with the ABO group O and Y-DNA haplogroup M,
plant-gathering and vegetal subsistence, dolichocephalous skull with broad platyrrhine noses and high nasal indices, prenasalised stops
Australo-Tungids, riveside and lakeside ecotypes, nomadic fishermen,
round conical tents with crossed poles, pit graves, ochre burials, the
dead corpses are besprinkled with
red hematite paint, Y-DNA haplogroups C4 and C2
petroglyphs, rock painting with
imprints of phalanges, roentgen drawings of animals for hepatomancy
and haruspicy from the entrails killed game, curved
boomerangs and knives used as weapons, archaic Y-haplogroup R1-173
shell midden, sand-dune dump of kitchen
waste, rectangular monopitched huts
tall stature, dolichocephalous skulls, low head indices
beehive huts in circular campsites, the dead corpses are anointed and wrapped in long
pieces of cloth, graves are covered by piles of stones, Y-haplogroup Q
lean-to summer huts, semidugout dwellings,
short stature, Negrito constitution, brachycephalous heads, curly ulotrichous
hair, cremation burials
Table 2. The systematic
classification of Australian aboriginal tribes
Human bod.gif do not arise in a few hundreds
of years, their germination lasts more than tens and hundreds of millennia. What
differs the Australian Aborigines from African Negrids
is not a new racial outgrowth but different rates of the archaic Oldowan heritage preserved in their blood. It survived
although many traits were partly lost or receded due to contacts with alien neighbours.
The clear and elucidating implication of the diffusionist
philosophy of ethnic groups is that they inherit one principal paternal
strain but blend it with maternal genetic strains. On one hand, they inherit
the genetic pool of the ancestors in their original homeland, and on the
other hand, they hybridise it with traits acquired in their new outland
plantations. As a result, it makes no sense to invent new names for
continental varieties and derive their origin from subclades
of the first colonists. Population genetics confirms that almost all
continents have at least small admixtures of all human haplogroups.
No continent was populated only by one sole race and by one DNA haplogroup. Continental paradises tend to have one
dominant race and unequal rates of several subdominant assimilated bod.gif. The
only reasonable anthropological nomenclature may be devised by compounds
indicating reference to archetypal stocks but comprising also reference to
their secondary continental location.
So Australia is
generally recognised as a home of Australids
denotable as Australo-Negrids but its haplogenetic dominant is the Y-DNA type C4 related to C2.
This genetic group is typical of Tungids, the Tagalog in the Philippines and
Polynesian Tongan tribes. So one of the most populous
factions among Australian Aborigines are Australo-Tungid
remarkable for pit-grave burials besprinkled by ochre paint. A
convenient proposal of systematic racial taxonomy of Australian and Oceanic
variants is put forward in Tables 9 and10.
from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential
Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties,