Systematic methodology

Systematic ethnology

 Systematic anthropology

Systematic linguistics

Population geogenetics

Systematic poetics

Systematic folkloristics





Prehistoric tribes

 Prehistoric races

Prehistoric languages

Prehistoric archaeology

   Prehistoric religions

Prehistoric folklore















*     Racial taxonomy

*     Ethnical taxonomy

*     Europe

*     Asia

*     Anatolia

*     Caucasus

*       Africa

*       Arabia

*     India

*     China

*     Indonesia

*     Indochina

*     Polynesia

*     Australia

*     North America

*     South America




*     Spain                France

*     Italy       Schweiz

*      Britain         Celts

*      Scandinavia  

*     Germany

*     Balts        Slavs

*     Greece

*     Anatolia




The  Languages and Racial Varieties of Caucasus

Clickable terms are red on the yellow background




Map 1. A new reclassification of Caucasian languages

(from P. Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, Map 32, p. 98)


Map 2. Ancient Caucasia  and Central Asia

(from P. Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, Map 31, p. 97)









































The Racial and Dialectal Types of the Caucasus and Pontus


The racial category of Caucasoids has become one of the most popular catchwords for European white races although it conceals very vague and controversial content. The core of Caucasia is filled by the Caucasus Mountains, whose hilly and mountainous relief has become a conservation reserve for ancient archaic nationalities. If human populations in the plains, lowlands and plateaus are usually overridden by uncountable migratory invasions and exhibit the least possible ethnic diversity, the steep valleys of the Alps, Pyrenees, Carpathians, Caucasus, Pamir and Himalayas are a live asylum of ethnic fossils that have survived millennia in unimpaired isolation and virginity. In opposition to mountainous enclaves of Eurasia, among aborigines of Australia or New Guinea such ‘splendid isolation’ and racial diversity is associated with technological retardation. Areas of high cultural diversity are comparable to museums of archaeological finds as they provide a valuable source of knowledge for excavating the human past. 

   The decisive dominant among Caucasian tribes were undoubtedly the Abkhaz kurgan-builders, who shared most features with Scythian megalith-builders but differed from their stock by the degree of cultural purity. Their ethnic stock represented pure Ugrids, while Scythians were impure Ugrids mixed with IE Persians, and so classified as Indo-Europeans. Aligning the Abkhaz among the Siberian Ugric tribes seems allowable seeing that old folktales described Basque megalith-builders as ‘ogres’. Comparing small burial mounds of Siberian tribes to large Maeotian kurgans excavated in Maikop sites looks like a bold devilry only if we neglect their dependence on political power. Kurgans were large funeral abodes reserved only for the dead atamans, ordinary commoners had to content with small piles of stones similar to the portable yurt tent for the living. What all Ugro-Scythians had in common were dome-shaped beehive huts that herders built out of straw, hide or felt on summer grazing tours. In winter they resorted with their families to hillforts and more permanent constructions out of stones. The same formal isomorphism and structural variability was manifested in funeral architecture, whose grandeur and splendour depended on social standing.

    The anthropogenesis of Basco-Scytho-Ugrids was a long evolutionary process that started with Homo heidelbergensis and Homo rhodesiensis in South Africa and continued with the triumphal campaign of Mousterian mammoth-hunters throughout Eurasia as far as Siberia. Their descendants did not remain childless, their diffusion in quest of the megafauna of big mammals is recorded in surviving populations of Khoids, Nilotids, Aterian and Berber Orientalids in North Africa and Dinarids in Europe. In the Middle East they fused with local flake-tool cultures to form a special breed of Levalloiso-Mousterians.

  The latter transmuted into three varieties of tall brachycephalous Orientalids, the Armenian race, the Assyrian race and Semitic Race. Their occurrence indicates a great predominance of Ugroid and Scythoid phenotypes in the Near East, the Levant, Syria, Armenia and Caucasus. In Siberia the prehistoric flake-tool cultures found new asylums and secondary isolated domains as Uralids, Ugrids and Tungids. However, the rarefied droves of big mammals led their step to Siberia and the New World but Neolithic pastoralism turned their hopes to new horizons. In Eurasian toponymy their ethnonyms in place names crisscrossed earlier settlements because after the extinction of mammoths they returned to the southern fertile plains and attacked the villages of agriculturalists tilling the soil. 

1. Greek straight nose sloping directly downward, 2. Roman convex nose, also the eagle’s aquiline nose curved backward (Assyrian nose), 3. Lappish and Pygmoid concave upturned nose bending onwards (Lapps), 4. a hook nose (common among Egyptian pharaohs), 5. Jewish broken crooked nose, 6. round nose typical of Mongoloid yellow-skinned races, 7. short flat and broad nose typical of the Bantu and Negrids, 8. the short flat and broad nose of Australids and Melanesids.

Table 27. The nasal morphology of principal races (after J. Deniker)



  The category of Assyrian race appears to be a convenient label as it refers to a clear ethnic content with transparent historical dating but calls for substituting by a more fitting term of Sumerids. They separated from Ugrids in the Palaeolithic and developed their own independent autonomy as the Uralids of northeast Europe. Their racial description agrees with that of Ugrids but evolved into several independent local varieties such as Sarmatids, Hallstattians, Sumerids, Maurids, Arabids and Tibetids.

    The typical features of wide crania, rounded occiput, long face, narrow aquiline and high-bridged nose, thin lips and narrow eye opening are ascribed also to the Semitic Jewish race. Its theories were developed especially by the official Nazi anthropologist Hans F. K. Günther, who classified Jews as a subtype of Armenian racial variety and aligned them also with Assyrian types. In fact, Jewish people represent very brainy and intelligent ethnic variety uniting several heterogeneous genetic traditions: (a) the Microlithic tradition with the Y-haplogroups R1a, R1b associates the Abrahamic iconoclastic Hebrews and Canaanites closely with Germans, (b) Macrolithic cultures predefine the idololatric lineage of Judeans and Jews, while (c) Leptolithic industry separates a special breed of Palestinians.






   The terms such as Caucasoids, Armenian race, Assyrian race and Semitic breed are all misleading owing to heterogeneous reference. The term of Caucasoids is suitable only to the minority of robust long-headed Georgian peasants but does not comply with the majority of Abkhaz kurgan-builders. The category of Armenian race properly suits the Abkhaz people prevailing in the western half of Caucasia. By Armenoid types anthropologists mean populations with ‘opaque-white skin, brunet hair and eyes, abundant pilosity, medium stature (166 cm), sturdy body build, wide head with rounded occiput (cranial index 87), very long face, straight and narrow nose (nasal index 57) with high bridge, thin lips, narrow eye opening.’1 They ought to be called ‘Abkhazoids’ because Armenians are an indiscriminate mixture of Europids and Turcoids with a weak enclave of Abkhaz kinsmen.

   The chief problem of linguistic taxonomy is that the Abkhaz have preserved the Ugric heritage in a more accomplished form than Uralo-Hungarian languages. Their phonology is based on series of ejective, series of labialised (and palatalised) stops, fortis plosives, fricatives, approximants and the mixed vowel (schwa). These features are no more well-preserved in the Ugro-Mansi groups and Palaeo-Siberian tongues. On the other hand, Caucasian languages have preserved absolutive and ergative constructions, agglutinative morphology and Uralic locative cases (essive, adessive, inessive). 

   Southwest Asia is an ethnic domain of Orientalids descending from Uralo-Ugric big-game hunters assimilated as ‘Semitic’ and ‘Hamitic’ pastoralists. Their characteristic features are convex aquiline noses, thick lower lips and united eyebrows. They are common to all mummifiers, megalith builders and beehive-dwellers. The best representatives are the Abkhaz, Armenians and the Assyroid and Jewish race. The Assyroid race is demonstrated on ancient Assyrian monuments and few surviving populations such as the Ayssores, the Jadjemi-Persians, Kurds and the Todas in south India. The most common varieties of convex noses are depicted on Deniker’s ‘nasal morphology’ in Table 1. Its scheme shows differences between broad Negroid noses, Lappic concave upturned noses and convex types peculiar to Southwest and Central Asia. The Roman type proves that the Italic tribes of Marsi, Volsci and Oscans derived from the Hallstattian culture of chariot burials and the latter from Sintashta chariot burials. Members of this racial stock included Sarmatians, Uralids, Sumerians as well as Assyrians. The genuine Uralids rarely display hooked and aquiline noses, the long-term impact of Nordics promulgating the Corded Ware cultures, their nasal profile is straight and combined with a high bridge. Their utter antipodes were people with the Greek, Gallic and Lappish nose typical of short-sized races cultures practicing cremation burials. It ranged from straight types to concave noses with a low bridge.


The Languages and Dialects of Caucasia


   People of Caucasia are predominantly Abkhazoids but their settlements were crisscrossed by several alien races of Altaic, Negroid and Elamitoid origin. The most important autochthons were remains of   Dmanisi Negrids, who preserved prenasalised stops mb-, nd-, ng- and prefixing classifiers. Their followers were Acheulean plant-gatherers and Neolithic agriculturalists with b-plurals. The Middle Palaeolithic newcomers consisted of Levalloisian and Aurignacian ancestors of Tungids, who united the Awaro-Andi family, Swan, Balkar and Karachay languages. They belong to the group Volga Bulgar languages (Polovets, Kipchak, Kuman) that fused with Turcoids and so their lineage is erroneously identified with the Turanid stocks. The true Turanids are only tribes descending from the Imereti Microlitic culture (10,000 BC). A tenable taxonomy of Caucasian races and languages is outlined below. It proposes to classify ethnic groups according the seemingly ephemeral criterion of plurals endings, where an x-language defines a type of languages with x-plurals. Their dominant is the western group k-Caucasian (Ugro-Caucasian) languages that have spread in the Chalcolithic with the epoch-breaking expansion of the Bronze Age industry. 

Proto-Caucasian (Negro-Caucasian, mb-Caucasian): Bats, Godoberi, Tindi, Bagwalal, Dargwa,

   Tsakhur, Bezhta, Rutul; languages with prenasalised stops and classifiers; its ancestors probably      

   arrived in Caucasia with the advent of Dmanisi man (Homo georgicus) about 1.2 mya

b-Caucasian (Elamo-Caucasian, Tsezian family): Georgian, Mingrelian, Lazi, Svan, Godoberi, Tsez,

   Hinux, Hunza, Khwarshi, Tsakhur; ergative tongues with b-plurals, they may belong to the stock of

   Kura-Arax Gigantolithic axes (8,000 BC) and remote descendants of Acheulean cultures (500,000 BP)

k-Caucasian (Scytho-Caucasian): Abkhaz, Adyghe, Abaza, Kabardian, Cherkessian, Circassian;

   ergative languages with k-plurals, their group unites Maeotian kurgan-builders affiliated to

   Scythians, the Maykop culture (3700 BC) and the Uruk period (4000 BC) in Mesopotamia

i-Colchians (Caucaso-Lappic): Colchian, Albanian, Gilyaki; their family flourished in the period of     

   Caucasian Albania (600 BC), Trialetti culture in Georgia (3000 BC) and Colchian culture (3000 BC)

s-Caucasian: Ingush, Chechen, Bats; associated with the Koban culture (1100 BC) and LBK elements

r-Caucasian (Turco-Caucasian): Iberian, Nohai, Kumykh, Agul, Rutul, Tsakhur, Lak, Archi, Budux,

   Xinalug, Kryts, Chamalal, Udi; probable descendants of the Imeretian Microlithic culture (16,000 BP)

l-Caucasian (Tunguso-Caucasian, Awaro-Andian group): Svan, Balkar, Karachay-Balkar, Awar,

   Andi, Botlikh, Tindi, Bagwalal, Dido, Karata, Akhwakh, Bezhta; descent from Aurignacian

     colonisations and the Baradostian culture (38,000 BC) centred in the Zagros Mountains

Table 2. The classification of Caucasian languages by plural endings




Extract from P. Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, p. 94-98




















1 Renato Biasutti: Razze e i popoli della terra. Torino: UTET 1941.