Systematic methodology

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Population geogenetics

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Prehistoric tribes

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*     Racial taxonomy

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*     Anatolia




                     The Racial Groups of Europe

                         Clickable terms are red on the yellow background





















Map 30. The tribes and races of ancient Anatolia

Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, p. 92.



The Racial Typology of Asia Minor


   The ethnic and racial situation on the Anatolian peninsula cannot be solved by traditional divergence theories. Their all-inclusive recipe recommends postulating a Common Anatolian or Proto-Anatolian unity and peeling off its regional factions as subraces. The very term Ἀνατολή is etymologically explained from the Greek catch-word for ‘east’ or ‘sunrise’, although the Greek themselves coined the expression Asuwa. It denoted a military bloc under an Assyroid dynasty in the Hittite kingdom and referred to Assyroid Asians renowned for fighting in two-wheeled chariots. Its denomination survived in the present-day periphrasis Asia Minor. The first Akkadian records mentioned the peninsula as ‘the Land of the Hatti’. Later the Greeks substituted it by two toponyms Ἀσία, Asía2 and Ἀνατολή.

  Lappids. Before the Fall of Troy Asia Minor was occupied by Anatolian tribes with cremation burials depositing the ashes in hut-urns and face-urns. U. B. Alkim dated their appearance to 1700 BC,3 when cremation burials were common among Colchians on the western coasts of Caucasia and drifted from the cremating sites of the Georgian Trialeti culture (3000 BC). From the 2nd century BC these cultural complexes were united by the kingdom of Caucasian Albania (known also as Arran). The war of Troy featured Trojans in Troas as a culture populated by people practicing incineration rites. Their ultimate defeat later flooded Greece with enslaved captives, who administered cremation funerals. Their bloom culminated in the 11th century BC when the Aegean Peninsula was clouded by the twilight of the Dark Age of Greece. This era was conducted by the cultural mainstream of the Geometric Ware with meander-like ornamentation and patterns indulging in motifs of musical keys. The victorious champions were the tribes of Hellenes, Ions and Aeolians, who spread cremations all over Greek islands and carried out a temporary satemisation of Greek elocution.4

   In Eurasian archaeology the 2nd millennium BC brought a period of several overwhelming colonisations of Lappids and their incineration burial rites. Their impact was felt on all continents: Central Europe was shattered by the Lusatian Urnfielders (1300 BC), South Russia and Kazakhstan by Andronovans (1500 BC), Colchis by the hypothetical Anatolians (1500 BC) and India by the cremating cemetery H culture (1800 BC). Their staple endonymous ethnonyms were Wends, Ants, Anatolians, Hindus, Andaman islanders and Annamites. Although they spoke different languages, they manifested the common origin from the Lappic racial prototype: short-sized stature, brachycephalous heads, concave noses, paedomorphous faces, abundant hairiness and endomorphous constitution. In Epirus they ran across their kinsmen from Africa, who were called Albanians and Hellenes. Their family pedigree multiplied after Deucalion’s ‘world deluge’ and included the three main forefathers, ἝλληνHellēn  Ἴων, ÍonΑἴολοςAeolus. Their temporary predominance gave Greece the nickname of Ἑλλάς, Hellas and baptized ancient Turkey as Anatolia.

   Hattians. The native autochthons of the Anatolian peninsula were Hattians, since they are regarded as its autochthones. Their country was called ‘the Land of the Hatti’ by Akkadians and Assyrians knew it as hatti matu. Their tribesmen spoke the native language Hattili and belonged to the long belt of archaic ‘axe-tool peoples’ with macrolithic instruments used for digging for vegetal food. Their theocratic kingdom was founded as the germ of the later Hittite empire that bore their name in its etymology. Yet its throne was soon usurped by the violent overthrow of foreign raiders called Nesites. They moved their capital from Kadesh to Neša and adopted their native dialect Nešili as the official standard. These Nesites were probably ancestors of the Mysians related to the Thracian Bessoi and Greek Mycenaeans.

   The ethnographical customs of Hattians were compatible with the race of Neolithic farmers called Ubaidians, Hittites, Hittim or Heteans and consisted of elementalism, adoring the mother-goddess Earth, bull cults and bull-fighting. They built multi-roomed labyrinths with flat roofs on tell mounds heaped by burning and repeated settlements. Their architecture in Çatal Hüyük or Çayönü Tepesi was comparable to similar centres of Neolithic farmers in Elam, Susiana, Mehrgahr, Harappa and Mohenjo daro. They shared also a similar ergative language with suffixing b-plurals. What is, however, surprising is that Hattic bears some very archaic features preserved also in the Tsezic group of Caucasian languages (Godoberian, Bagvali, Dargwa, Tsaxur, Bezhita). These languages have maintained the African Bantu prenasalised consonants, prefixing word-formation, nominal classifiers, the opposition of animate and inanimate nouns and the SVO word order. They jut out of the morphological guidelines of other Caucasoid languages and may stem from the colonisation of Dmanisi Negrids called as Homo georgicus (1.2 mya). It occurred in the intermediate period between Oldowans and Acheuleans and so it deserves a special denomination. It makes it justifiable to dust off the long-forgotten term of Chellean cultures.



   A tenable hypothesis has it that the dark equatorial race wandered from Africa to the Near East, Caucasus, India and China around 1.8 mya and Acheuleans repeated these travels with new sophisticated industry around 0.8 mya. European Nordids took part in the Acheulean diaspora but conserved the archaic architecture of rectangular longhouses with half-timber constructions filled by turfs. Oriental Acheuleans founded their settlements in oases enclosed by arid deserts and built their collective multi-room houses out of clay, pisé and sundried bricks because they were vexed by lack of woody forests. Anatolia lay on the crossroad of the Elamite, Caucasian and Indo-European civilisations: its western half was occupied by the IE languages with nominative-accusative constructions and s-plurals (Phrygian, Luwian), its eastern half was inhabited by the Elamitoid IE ergative languages with b-plurals and its central heartland retained the remnants of ancient Negroid languages with prefixing classifiers. The Indo-European element loomed distinctly only in the western regions that experienced the backward colonisation of the Danubian Linear Ware from the Balkans. Its cultural heritage was manifested in quadrangular longhouses and pottery with spiral patterns. Ancient Greece and Phrygia were intermingled by at least eight local cults devoted to the bull-god Zeus. They were administered by priestesses called Idaean Dactyls or Ides on sacred hills called Olympus. It is likely that the toponym Olympus originated from the root Elam by adding the Elamitoid b/p-plural ending. The sacred district of Olympus on the Peloponnesos was Elis or Eleia. This suspicion is confirmed also by the fact that the chain of Greek and Phrygian sacred Olympuses continues as far as Nepal, where people worship the sacred Mount Elam.

  Mediterranids. Speculations about how Anatolian languages developed from Proto-Indo-European are worthless because all of them manifest strong heterogeneous layers of alien substrata. One large group is formed by Mediterranids, who cover two extensive categories of nomadic fishermen. One was remarkable for producing Leptolithic prismatic flakes inserted into cutting sabre-like weapons, while the other manufactured small triangular and trapezoid microliths inlaid in wooden shafts of throwing knives. Egyptian Amarna Letters reported about battles of Ramesses III with the Hittites and enumerated their dependents among peuples de la mer.1 They included Peleset (Philistines), Lukkas (Lycians), Shekelesh (Cilicians or Sicilian Siculi?) and Shardanes, whose name may mean either Sardinians or inhabitants of the Lydian kingdom Sardis.[1] This proves that the ancients regarded Microlithic Turanids and both Levalloisian and Aurignacian Tungids as one race of piratic seafarers. Their racial unity is acknowledged also by modern anthropologists who rank them as one category of Mediterranids. 

   Lydian Tungids. The Mediterranean Tungids encompass Lydians, Carians, Lelegs and other ethnic minorities inclusive of the Sards. Their tribal plantations spanned from Palestine and Byblus to Anatolia and from here they continued to Greece, Illyria, Dalmatia, Carinthia as far the Franco-Italian lake-district surrounding the lacustrine centres of the Pfyn, Lagozza, Pollada and Cortaillod cultures. They were Non-Indo-European people clad in Greek and Roman tunics wound and tied around the body. Besides they ate mush out of ground acorns, adored flowers as sacred votive objects, worshipped divine twins and planted cherry-trees. They were remarkable for slim and slender figures, leptorrhine noses, narrow faces (leptoprosopia) as well as small feet and hands.

Anatolian Turanids. Microlithic cultures crossed Anatolia in two parallel routes, one host of Kimmerian wanderers proceeded along the northern coasts, while the other advanced along the southern coasts from the Taurus Mountains to Cilicia and Lycia. Their abodes were hewn into the rock and cliffs as artificial rock-cut caves with vertical shafts and horizontal corridors. Their occurrence was numerous in Lycia famed for the piratic adventures of its seafarers. Their resemblance to Jewish rock-hewn monuments and cave dwellings in Nabatean Petra leaves no space for doubts about their Semitic origin from the race of Hebroids.


Extract from Pavel Bělíček: The Differential Analysis of the Wordwide Human Varieties. Prague 2018, pp. 90-98












2  H. G. Liddell - R. Scott: Ἀσία, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus.

3 U. Bahadir Alkim: Anatolia I: from the beginnings to the end of the 2nd millenium B.C. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1969.

4 W. Diver: On the prehistory of Greek consonantism. Word 14, 1958: 1-25.

1  W. L. Moran: Les lettres d'El Amarna, Paris, 1987, p. 206-207.

[1] N. A. Silberman, S. Gitin, A. Mazar, E. Stern, eds.: The Sea Peoples, the Victorians, and Us. Mediterranean Peoples in Transition : Essays in Honor of Trude Dothan, 1998, Israel Exploration Society, p. 269.